View Full Version : jñānaṃ & jñeyaṃ

24 November 2015, 10:26 PM
hariḥ oṁ

Within bhāgavad gītā, the 13th chapter called kṣetrakṣetrajñavibhāgayogaḥ (kṣetra-kṣetrajña-vibhāga-yogaḥ : field + knowledge of the field + distinction + yoga ) arjuna asks śrībhagavān
(keśava) another great question…

prakṛtiṃ puruṣaṃ caiva kṣetraṃ kṣetrajñam eva ca |
etad veditum icchāmi jñānaṃ jñeyaṃ ca keśava || 13.1

He asks, what is:
· prakṛtiṃ & puruṣaṃ ~nature~ & the living entity, a person such as pumān puruṣaḥ , a male person or púruṣī a female person
· kṣetraṃ & kṣetrajñam – the field ( the body or śarīra, that which is easily destroyed) & the knower of the field ( the jīva/limited being within this body)
· jñānaṃ & jñeyaṃ - knowledge & what is known ( I see it as what is to be known vs. what is known – that is just my way of thinking)

I do not plan to address the 3 groups above, but look to the last couplet of jñānaṃ & jñeyaṃ for this post.

kṛṣṇa-jī defines what is knowledge and (to me) its application… that is, what is it’s highest use ? Let me start with what is to be known ( its highest use)
as that helps align one’s comprehension of why this knowledge (jñānaṃ) is worthy of one’s attention and merit.

jñeyaṃ yattatpravakṣyāmi yajjñātvāmṛtamaśnute |
anādimatparaṃ brahma na sattannāsaducyate || 13.13
( for easier reading:
jñeyaṃ yat tat pravakṣyāmi yaj jñātvāmṛtam aśnute |
anādimat paraṃ brahma na sat tan nāsad ucyate || )

This says in simple terms , what is to be known (jñeyaṃ) is anādimat-paraṃ brahma or brahma¹ the Supreme (paraṃ) Absolute without beginning (anādimat)

Now we can look at what kṛṣṇa-jī defines as knowledge…

It is often called out as the 19 fold knowledge. I see it differently. I see it as 18 + 1. Now why split hairs over this? My 18+1 still = 19.
Yes, I agree. Yet it is vyāsa-ji that offers the theme of 18, not only in the bhāgavad gītā‘s total chapter count, but throughout the mahābhārata .
See this HDF post for the theme of 18: http://hindudharmaforums.com/showthread.php?1882-The-5th-Veda-Mahabharata post numbers 32, 38, (and 7 from a jyotish point of view). So the list of 18 + 1 will be reviewed below. The ‘1’ ( or 19th item) as I see it is the summary of the 18 above it. I will point this out when I get to this juncture.

For for the pāṭhaka (~skilled~ reader ): note the similarities to the yama-s (restraints) and niyama-s (observances) found in patañjali’s yogadarśana.
For the general reader (praghaṭāvid) it is worthy to note that the qualities and behaviors are not something that are contrived or done via pretending.
This is listed out within the 18 as adambhitvam and is defined as ‘sincerity’. Yet it is when we dis-assemble the word we find its core meaning :
a + dambhitva a = not + dambha = deceit , fraud , feigning , hypocrisy . So the finer point of : a+dambhitva is without fraud, without hypocrisy.
We do not pretend to have this qualities if they have not blossomed as yet. They must be there, but they’re in their infancy. Now what to say for emulating
these behaviors ? I will leave that to you.

The first 9:

amānitvam adambhitvam ahiṃsā kṣāntir ārjavam |
ācāryopāsanaṃ śaucaṃ sthairyam ātmavinigrahaḥ ||13.8

amānitva - modesty , humility; a + mānitva a = not + mānitva = pride , arrogance
adambhitva – sincerity; a + dambhitva a = not + dambhitva = dambha = deceit , fraud , feigning , hypocrisy
ahiṃsā – harmlessness; a + hiṃsā a = not + hiṃsā = injuring , injurious , mischievous , hostile

note that this does not say ‘only your neighbor or man or woman’; it is non-harm for all things.

kṣāntir = kṣānti - patience , forbearance , endurance.

note the inner workings of this word : ka + śānti ka ( 3rd derivative) = joy + śānti = tranquility , peace , quiet , peace or calmness of mind ( the joy of calmness)

ārjavam - straightness , straight direction so straightforwardness, honesty ;

it is from the term ṛjú defined as tending in a straight direction , the right manner; upright , honest

ācāryopāsanaṃ = ācārya upāsana

ācārya ‘knowing or teaching the ācāra or rules’, a spiritual guide. Since we’re talking the bhāgavad gītā, kṛṣṇa-jī would be the example of the ideal ācāra ; within the mahābhārata one could call out bhīṣmá or even droṇa, the teachers of the pāṇḍava-s.
upāsana - the act of sitting or being near or at hand; serving , waiting upon , service , attendance , respect
ācāryopāsanaṃ is serving and respecting the ācāra; This is beyond a transaction, or expecting something in return.

śaucaṃ or śauca - cleanness , purity; this includes the mind. Clean cloths and ‘bad thoughts’ are incongruent with this notion of śauca.

the term comes from śuci defined as radiant , bright.

sthairyam or sthairya - stability; constancy , perseverance , patience
ātmavinigrahaḥ = ātma + vinigrahaḥ

ātma in this application is that of the mind or intellect
vinigrahaḥ is restraining , checking , stopping , subduing , controlling; note the term graha which is defined as ‘seizing or taking hold of’ ; nigraha is ‘restraining’.
ātmavinigrahaḥ - a controlled mind

For upcoming posts
10 though 12
indriyārtheṣu vairāgyam anahaṃkāra eva ca |
janma mṛtyu jarā vyādhi duḥkha doṣānudarśanam|| 13.9

13 and 14
asaktir anabhiṣvaṅgaḥ putradāragṛhādiṣu |
nityaṃ ca samacittatvam iṣṭāniṣṭopapattiṣu|| 13.10

15 though 17
mayi cānanyayogena bhaktir avyabhicāriṇī |
viviktadeśasevitvam aratir janasaṃsadi ||13.11

18 and 19
adhyātmajñānanityatvaṃ tattvajñānārthadarśanam |
etaj jñānam iti proktam ajñānaṃ yadato’nyathā ||13.12

iti śivaṁ


brahma=brahman - is used for the Supreme & Absolute vs. brahmā the creator and part of brahmā-viṣṇu-śiva triad people are familiar with. Note we can say that brahman is the sum total of everything ( manifest , unmanfiest; that wish exists or about to exist in any given future) and is the origin of brahmā-viṣṇu-śiva. In non-dual kaśmir śaivism this term would be called parabhairava.
veda vyāsa is the one who compiled the veda-s and is also known as kṛṣṇa dvaipāyana

25 November 2015, 03:37 PM
hariḥ oṁ

Continuing on śrī bhagavān's reply to arjuna ...

10 though 12
indriyārtheṣu vairāgyam anahaṃkāra eva ca |
janma mṛtyu jarā vyādhi duḥkha doṣā nudarśanam || 13.9

indriyārtheṣu vairāgyam
indriyārtheṣu = indriya + ārtha + iṣu

indriya – the senses; this ‘indriya’ term can also be used for the number 5 ( as the 5 senses); it also means power , force, as the ability for the senses to pull you here and there.
ārtheṣu = artha + iṣu ārtha = ‘having to do with’, or ‘relating to’ + iṣu = an arrow; the number 5; some also say ‘a ray of light’; ārtheṣu = having to do with the 5 (indriya-s)
vairāgyam – this typically is called dispassion, yet is defined differently. It is aversion to, indifference towards, ‘growing pale’

Hence this notion of indriyārtheṣu vairāgyam is: relating to the senses (indriya) one grows pale, indifferent to them – to the objects of the senses.
Svāmī lakṣman-jū’s words are ‘one does not give-in to them’.

There are four possible roads regarding indriyārtheṣu vairāgyam
The first is one is established in the SELF ( let’s call turyātīta¹); then this vairāgya is a natural/no-effort occurrence and will have the experience ‘ I do not act at all’ – this will be called out momentarily.
The second one is that person via his/her practice naturally finds they are not inebriated (intoxicated) by objects. The objects are there , but one grows pale of them, they lack interest in them. There even can be the behavior of ‘ oh I want that , oh need to get that , go and capture that’ , then a moment later ‘naaaah ’. They are not driven.
The third is where one makes an effort not to be captured by objects. It is a mindful effort. It is meager at times; it may cause some strain, and often than not the senses win.
The fourth is that of the paśujana ( worldly) , without abhyāsa (practice) of any sort; not caring, nor even knowing of this entanglement of the senses. In this case it is śakti having sufficient fun with this person. Now one would expect some chastisement from me ( or others) saying look at this brute! This is not the case; this person too has yet to feel the pinch that comes with this constant stimulation. It will occur. They are atṛpta ( unsatisfied).

Consistency of kṛṣṇa-jī on this matter
One should be mindful that the senses are doing their job. Kṛṣṇa-jī is clear on this (8th & 9th śloka of chapter 5):
naiva kiṃcitkaromīti yukto manyeta tattvavit |
paśyañśṛṇvanspṛśañjighrannaśnangacchansvapañśvasan ||8

pralapanvisṛjangṛhṇannunmiṣannimiṣannapi |
indriyāṇīndriyārtheṣu vartanta iti dhārayan ||9
This says overall:
The yuktaḥ (the one possessed or residing with the Self/Supreme/Divine) knows the truth and maintains ‘ I do not act at all ’ (naiva kiṃcitkaromīti) even when seeing,
hearing, touching, smelling eating, walking, sleeping, breathing, speaking, letting go, seizing or grasping, even opening and closing the eyes.
The yuktaḥ ( the person herein being described) simply holds that the senses act among the objects of sense ( indriyāṇīndriyārtheṣu vartanta iti dhārayan ).
This state, this condition is un-contrived; it is on every level of the senses… that is why one cannot pretend (dambha = fraud , from the post one list above).

A look at what the kaṭha upaniṣad (kaṭhopaniṣad) says on this matter…
If one looks at any artistic rendering of kṛṣṇa-jī talking to arjuna, it is usually within a chariot.
This symbol (lakṣaṇā) is called out in the kaṭhopaniṣad section 1.3.3 to 1.3.8 and says the following:

Know the Self as the lord of the chariot and the body as the chariot . Know the intellect as the charioteer and the mind as the reins.
The senses are said to be the horses and sense-objects ( things of the world) is the path they tread on. The Self united with the senses and mind say the wise is the enjoyer.
With no vijñā́na (~understanding~) and the mind not constantly held firm, one’s senses go unrestrained like vicious horses for the charioteer.
With vijñā́na (~understanding~) and mind constantly held firm one’s senses remain restrained like good (well-mannered) horses for the charioteer.
One of no vijñā́na, unmindful and always impure, reaches not the goal but attains saṁsāra (the circuit of mundane existence, repeat births);
one of vijñā́na , mindful and always pure reaches the goal, where from is born no more.

The key is well-trained horses, not beaten. The beaten only gives you a horse that wants to escape. And what brings about this training?
It is vijñā́na and defined as ‘distinguishing or discerning , understanding , comprehending , recognizing , intelligence , knowledge’. It is the subject matter of this whole string,
jñānaṃ & jñeyaṃ .

anahaṃkāra = an+ahaṃkāra

‘an’ =is a prefix for ‘a’ meaning ‘not’ + ahaṃkāra = conception of one's individuality , egotism, the experience of ‘me-ness’, of the self ( small ‘s’ suggesting limits and boundaries, differentiated awareness of the world and ‘me’ at the center).
This anahaṃkāra in simple terms is without ego but is weighed to the notion of a false ego, a false impression on who you are.

This can be viewed on 2 levels
The mundane level : ‘ oh, I am so repected and smart, every one recognizes me as this and so do I ’ ; ‘I a so elevated, I am so over-qualified for this ___ (fill in the blank), why do you waste my time ?’.
It is a level of ego-centricity that even you believe it!

A higher level: being without the ego in actuality ; this goes back to post 1 above and infers the first offer on the list of 18. That of amānitva - humility. Humility is not thinking
less of yourself, but less about your self. In this case, perfect humility, the ego is not even there, and one is in great comfort being as small as a grain of sand.
This aligns to the aṣṭasiddhi daivata or the 8 divine siddhi-s (perfections) that are referred to by Utpaladevācārya and his work called the śivastortāvalī. It is aṇimā :

aṇimā - is aṇi + mā ; aṇi = the point of a needle + mā = measure. This is humility that is fully blossomed. One is humble, one is nirahaṃkāra or without pride;
‘Me-ness’ is brought down to a small point of a needle, not to exist. If there is any residual ‘me’ remaining , it is the slightest, minute, small (aṇi) leftovers or remains of ignorance called leśāvidya¹.

The 12th article of knowledge...
janma mṛtyu jarā vyādhi duḥkha doṣānudarśanam || 13.9
We will address the second line of the 9th śloka in the next post.

iti śivaṁ


turyātīta is defined as beyond the 4th; it simply means when pure awareness is established as an everyday experience. The 4th is the transcendent, the 4th level of awareness; for many this is experienced only during meditation. Then over time this 4th level becomes a daily experience even when the eyes are open, hence the notion of ‘beyond’ the 4th, suggesting one does not need to have their eyes closed to be established in it.

The following wisdom is inspired by Utpaladevācārya work called the śivastortāvalī. Utpaladevācārya falls within the lineage of the trika darśana school of thought, aligned to kaśmir śaivism. This alignment to mahāyoga is via the notion that one’s own Self, Being, is the re-recognition ( pratyabhijñā) of one’s Self - Being (sattā), comes by grace (anugraha).

leśa + avidya gives leśāvidya
leśa = a small part or portion , particle , atom , little bit or slight trace
avidya = ignorance

25 November 2015, 06:40 PM
hariḥ oṁ

The 12th article of knowledge...
janma mṛtyu jarā vyādhi duḥkha doṣānudarśanam || 13.9

This says ,
anudarśana – consideration (or keep in mind) birth (janma), death (mṛtyu), aging (jarā), diseases (vyādhi) distress (duḥkha), blemishes or faults (doṣā).

A few ways to view this
A simple view of this suggests: this is the way of the world, of diversity, of limits; this is what occurs. This would answer the age-old question of
why do people get sick, why is there death, why do blemishes and mishaps occur ? Because it is the way of the world – told you by an authoritative voice
śrī bhagavān (keśava¹ or kṛṣṇa-jī , a few of his other names).

Another view requires me to dis-assemble anu + darśana
darśana is defined as looking , noticing , observation , perception ; yet too it carries a definition of ‘appearance’ how things appear.
Now add-in anu : anu = aṇu = small, a moment of time.
This śloka (according to me only) says, what you ‘see’ (darśana) this death, aging, distress, blemishes, is small, minute, a moment
of time (aṇu). This suggests (to me) take it in stride, it is the way of the world, yet is a small thing, a moment in time.

iti śivaṁ


keśava – ‘having long / flowing handsome hair’ . yet the name as ka + śa + va disassembled - ka = brahman , śa = śiva , va = varuṇa ‘ all enveloping sky’ and the master of ṛtá (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%B9%9At%C3%A1) ( order, law, rightness, enlightened , luminous) like viṣṇu defined as all-pervading.

Yet another view is keśava as ka + iśa + va ( when a+i or a+ī come together side-by-side we get ‘e’ , hence keśava ).
Now we can infer that this ka ( 3rd derivative) is a name for prajāpati ( creator), or brahman, or viṣṇu, or yama + va = varuṇa;
Add īśa which is defined as lord, master, or even śiva. This then says, keśava is He that lords over prajāpati ( creator), brahman, viṣṇu, yama + va = varuṇa

26 November 2015, 06:20 PM
hariḥ oṁ

The 13th and 14th article of knowledge...

asaktiranabhiṣvaṅgaḥ putradāragṛhādiṣu |
nityaṃ ca samacittatvam iṣṭāniṣṭopapattiṣu ||13.10

asaktiranabhiṣvaṅgaḥ putradāragṛhādiṣu |

asaktir or asaktiḥ - being detached from worldly feelings or passions, yet a closer look yields the following;

a+saktiḥ - a= not + saktiḥ= entwined, clinging or adhering

anabhiṣvaṅgaḥ - absence of connection or attachment

an + abhiṣvaṅgaḥ an= a = not or without + abhiṣvaṅgaḥ = intense attachment or affection ; abhi = ‘intensity’

putra + dāra + gṛha-adiṣu = son + wife + home & so on (etc.)

putra - a son; this can also be applied as ‘children’; if it were a daughter it would be putrī;

put+tra = protecting one from ‘put’ or hell

dāra - wife
gṛha-adiṣu - the house and inhabitants

gṛha - a house with several rooms ; the inhabitants of the house
adiṣu - and so on ( ~ etc.~)

asaktiranabhiṣvaṅgaḥ putradāragṛhādiṣu |
this says in general,
not excessively clinging or becoming intensely attached to one’s family, house, and others ( friends/associates/things).

This view is consistent to what kṛṣṇa-jī says in the 6th chapter
nātyaśnatas tu yogosti na caikāntam anaśnataḥ |
na cātisvapnaśīlasya jāgrato naiva cārjuna ||16

this says in general,
this yoga is not for him who eats too much nor for him who does not eat at all;
it is not for him who is given too much to sleep or for him who keeps awake.

How to connect these two themes that are offered above ? When kṛṣṇa-jī says this ( yoga) is not for one who
‘eats or sleeps too much ’ he is saying over-indulgence. Eating is not just the food you put in your mouth; it is your
surroundings and what you take in via all your senses - activities, friends, food, chores, giving/getting, etc.

This takes us to the term used above from śloka 13.10 being reviewed.
an + abhiṣvaṅgaḥ an = a = not or without + abhiṣvaṅgaḥ = intense attachment or affection ; abhi = ‘intensity’
‘abhi’ here is intensity or over-indulgence is ‘attachment to’. The link back to the family, and for some an 'excessive and intense' relationship
of need/clinging.

Another point of view ( my view only)
Looking at this term a bit differently: an + abhi + ṣvaṅgaḥ

we know an = not
let’s look at this term: abhi + ṣvaṅgaḥ

abhi = intensity
ṣvaṅgaḥ I am using as svaṅgaḥ¹ and means ‘having a beautiful body’. Now the inference with an + abhi + ṣvaṅgaḥ = without the intensity of
(being attached) to beautiful things. That is, not being overwhelmed and intensely attached to the beauty of the world, family, friends, home, & objects.
The overall knowledge being suggested is balance; not over-indulging & be entangled in the world of family, friends, objects, that one loses their direction of what is truly important to the subscriber of the knowledge found in the 13th chapter let alone that of the bhāgavad gītā.

This same notion of balance is offered in the continuing śloka:
nityaṃ ca samacittatvam iṣṭāniṣṭopapattiṣu ||13.10

nityaṃ = continual , perpetual , eternal (ca = and)
sama-cittatvam = sama or even-ness in your (tva) citta or mind, thinking, reasoning, intelligence
iṣṭāniṣṭopapattiṣu = iṣṭa + aniṣṭa + upapatti + ṣu - (iṣṭa) agreeable, desirable, regarded as good + (aniṣṭa) unagreeable,undesired +

(upapatti) taking place, happening, occurring + (ṣu) delivery, giving birth to

This says,
one is to be sama balanced, even-ness, ~ unperturbed~ in one’s mind when agreeable or disagreeable happenings/events occur
(~ or are born~).
So the 2 verses of the 13.10 śloka is anchored in not over-indulging or losing balance;

One could say that the bhāgavad gītā's overall offering is the knowledge of perfect, pure and stainless balance.

iti śivaṁ


svaṅgaḥ is used without the dhātu-pāṭha format of ‘ṣ’ to get to the definition used. Many roots which begin with s are written in the dhātu-pāṭha with 'ṣ'

28 November 2015, 07:15 PM
hariḥ oṁ

The 15th to 17th article of knowlege...

mayi cānanyayogena bhaktir avyabhicāriṇī |
viviktadeśasevitvam aratir janasaṃsadi ||13.11
mayi cānanyayogena bhaktir avyabhicāriṇī

mayi = in me
cānanyayogena = ca + ananya + yogena = and (ca) + having no other object, undistracted, focused (ananya) + yogena = yoga + ina¹

yoga = union + ina = strong, energetic, determined

bhaktir = bhakti = devotion
avyabhicāriṇī = avyabhicāreṇa = without deviation; without failure

mayi cānanyayogena bhaktir avyabhicāriṇī
this says, without failure (consistently), one’s devotion onto me ( in me) is focused, undistracted and strong.


viviktadeśasevitvam = vivikta + deśa + sevitvam

vivikta - separated , kept apart , distinguished , discriminated; this also means clear and purity; distinct
deśa - point , region , spot , place , part , portion
sevitvam – resorting to ; dwelling in

General meaning:
dwelling in a separated, clean, pure place
Another view
separated, discriminating (discerning) what place one will dwell-in where there is clarity and purity or keeping apart, resorting to a spot
or region of purity. This suggests a few things to me:
a. At the highest level remaining completely separated from all things un-pure is being established in the SELF.
b. keeping apart also can suggest not co-mingling within environments where one’s purity will erode or blemish.
c. svāmī lakṣman-jū’s point of view on this matter is the notion of remaining aloof from society – not co-mingling, avoiding idle gossip and the like.

Since this is in the same śloka of 13.11, it seems to me it is in a place where one’s devotion can be done without failure (avyabhicāreṇa);
in other words a place that will support one’s cānanyayogena ( undistracted and focused yoga).

aratir janasaṃsadi ||13.11

aratir or arati = dissatisfaction , discontent ( this word looks like ārātri or fire ceremony but is not; nor is it ā́rāti which is ‘enemy’)
janasaṃsadi = jana+ saṃsadi

jana = living being , man , person , race; it also means a number of persons collectively, hence a group or society or collection there of.
saṃsadi = saṃsadām ayana – ‘above’

aratir janasaṃsadi || 13.11
What this says in my opinion is masterful… vyāsa-ji’s skill & brilliance is shown here. How so ?
a. a first look suggests that one is to be ( or remain) discontented within a gathering, a collection of people ~ socializing~.
b. another look says even though one is in a gathering he/she is to remain aloof ( above or saṃsadi), being discontented, that is, not
finding satisfaction by engaging in these gatherings.
c. Yet there is a 3rd view and it requires the dis-assembly of the term saṃsadi or saṃ + sadi

saṃ = sam = placing together + sadi = pathiṣádi = sitting in the way

This says one is placed together (saṃ) + in the way (sadi) - he or she still engages but is above, or does not get entangled in these events;
One is placed there but finds no satisfaction. A modern day equivalent point of view : ‘be in the world but not of it’.
If read incorrectly, one would see this as being in an environment they do not wish to be in and therefore should be dis-satisfied with this predicament.
This is not the case. Its the point that one is not swept up into the idea of socializing and excessive engagement ( again entanglement).
What good is a beacon of light if it is not shared with others ? My teacher would say, you are the ocean, be the ocean where-ever you may be.

This concurs with kṛṣṇa-jī's past words of being the same in pleasure or pain, loss or gain, again aligns with balance , what occurs when the divine
is infused into one's life.

iti śivaṁ
1. yogena e =( a + i = e) therefore yoga + ina = yogena

29 November 2015, 07:26 PM
hariḥ oṁ

The 18th article of knowledge and it's summation ....
adhyātmajñānanityatvaṃ tattvajñānārthadarśanam |
etaj jñānam iti proktam ajñānaṃ yadato’nyathā || 13.12

adhyātmajñānanityatvaṃ = adhyātma+jñāna+nityatvaṃ

adhyātma = the Supreme (adhi +ātma = over and above + Self (svātman))
jñāna = knowledge, knowing; higher knowledge
nityatvaṃ = nitya + tvaṃ or eternal, continual + your (yourself, or thyself)
abhinavagupta-ji sees this term as niṣṭha , defined as ‘situated in’ , ‘grounded in’ , ‘intent on or devoted to’

this says,
a. one is to be grounded in the knowledge of the Supreme eternal Self -or-
b. one is to be grounded or situated in the knowledge of the Supreme Self that is within you; some would say ‘that is none other than you’

tattvajñānārthadarśanam = tattva + jñānārtha + darśanam

tattva – most know this term as ‘elements’ , yet too there is a richer look at this:

true or real state, reality
the essence or substance of any/all things
it is also tat-tva or that-ness
tat-tva is also considered tad & tvam or ‘ that (art) thou’ =‘thou art that

jñānārtha = jñāna +artha or relating to (artha) + knowledge (jñāna)
darśanam or darśana = seeing, sight, looking at, ‘knowing’; it also means doctrine , philosophical system, a school of thought; also visiting, contemplating ( as in the subject offered)

tattvajñānārthadarśanam |
To me (and in my humble opinion) this is not the 19th article of knowledge but the summation of the past 18.
Others may see it differently and that is agreeable to me also.
I see it saying the following,
contemplating the views (darśanam) offered ( the 18 visited), of the elements (tattva-s) relating to the knowledge (jñāna +artha)
the essence of all things of ‘that’ in you (tad & tvam)

Then the last part,
etaj jñānam iti proktam ajñānaṃ yadato’nyathā || 13.12

I will offer in the next post.

iti śivaṁ

30 November 2015, 12:58 PM
hariḥ oṁ


Finishing the last śloka,

etaj jñānam iti proktam ajñānaṃ yadato’nyathā || 13.12

etaj = etad=etat = this or this here
jñānam iti = (jñāna) knowledge + iti = ityai= above ( suggesting what was just listed- the group called out in jñānārtha)

iti can also mean ‘in this manner’ or ‘and so forth’

this term 'iti' is a particle used at the end of a quotation also.

proktam - declared or mentioned
ajñānaṃ = a+ jñāna or not + knowledge ( ignorance )
yad = yat = which
ato’nyathā = ataḥ +anyathā (ataḥ) therefore or ‘so’ + (anyathā) otherwise , in a different manner, in another way

etaj jñānam iti proktam ajñānaṃ yadato’nyathā ||13.12
this says,
this is declared as knowledge ( what was reviewed above or ‘iti’); and so, that which is otherwise is ajñānaṃ or not knowledge, or ignorance.

With this śrī bhagavān (kṛṣṇa-jī) informs us what knowledge is, that which is life supporting and evolutionary. It carries you to 'what is to be known (jñeyaṃ) or
anādimat-paraṃ brahma or brahman ( reviewed in post 1 above). It is the knowledge of the whole, that is to be known.

But what of science, physics, chemistry, economics, art, social studies ? All very important things that will improve the comforts
of living. Yet the intent of the bhāgavad gītā in my humble opinion is the perfect balance of man & woman with the environment,
with the universe, within themselves. These 18 articles of knowledge support this unfoldment and real maturity of the human condition.

So, one will say, how can I do all these 18 ? there are so many, there’s so much to remember, so much to do. Think of what the
gardener does to nourish a whole tree. He does not go leaf-by-leaf to maintain them. He does one thing – he waters the root.
Just doing this one thing and the leaves are maintained, the limbs, the bark, etc. all perform their ‘duties’. All of this is done by
providing nourishment at the root. It strengthens the sap that nourishes the whole tree.

What then is our ‘watering’ ? It is one’s abhyāsa or practice ( some call sādhana) it is the dharma of practice. Note that abhyāsa is defined as practice, yet
it also means ‘permeating’ ; It is one’s practice that permeates all parts of one’s being and actions. That is it ‘permeates’ behavior, health, mental functioning, etc.
It uplifts. It allows all 18 articles to grow, or prepare the soil for them to grow. Just like in a tree, buds form before the flowers bloom; branches and extensions
need to form first, water ways, etc. are created by the tree by its own intelligence.
All it needs is the proper conditions. Like that, the ‘proper conditions’ for the 18 articles to mature is one’s practice. Then by the powers that be ( code for grace, anugraha)
this practice takes hold and permeates. One is uplifted. If we fall down, it is for a reason, to learn how to get back up ; this builds focus and determination.

It is all of a grand design ( as I see it). What then does one have to do ? Begin.

iti śivaṁ
1. abhyāsa - repeated or permanent exercise , discipline , use , habit , custom; we apply this to meditation, spiritual pursuits.