View Full Version : From the Seen to the Seer: A Journey in Contemplation

06 June 2007, 09:40 PM
The seen (dR^ig) are many. The Seer (dR^ishya) is one. Who is that one ultimate Seer and how do we cognize him?

dR^ig dR^ishya vivekaH is an excellent treatise that serves as a vade mecum (a quick reference) for the study of higher Vedanta. In forty-six shlokas, this small book traces the inquiry from the seen to the Seer, explains the nature of Jiva and Brahman and describes the kinds of samAdhi (concentration) to realize the ultimate Seer.

The authorship of this work is ascribed by some to Adi Ssnkaracharya and by others to Bharati Tirtha, who was the Jagadguru of the Shringeri Math from 1328 to 1380 CE. The book has been translated in English with phrasewise meaning of the shlokas by Swami Nikhilananda of the Ramakrishna Math order. The terse verses, and Swamiji's wonderful dexterity in explaining their denotations and connotations with extensive quotes from Sruti and other texts provide an enlightening reading experience.

Following the method of anvaya vyatireka (agreement and disagreement) of the Indian NyAya system, the book traces the Ultimate Seer and establishes its relationship with Jiva and the manifested objects, both subtle and gross. Here is how the discussion goes on. For finer details and the surrounding quotes, and the original verses in Sanskrit, please check the book that can be downloaded at http://www.archive.org/details/drgdrsyaviveka030903mbp.

We start at the grossest level of the seen and the Seer and then proceed inward. The very first verse says:

1. The Eye, Mind and Self are the Seers (verse 1)

1. The form is seen and the eye is the Seer. The eye is seen and the mind is the Seer. The mind with its modifications is seen by the Witness (Self), but the Witness is not seen by any other.

The form stands for all objects of sense perception. The eye stands for all the five organs of sense perception. The eye is the Seer only in a relative sense because it becomes the seen when the mind perceives it. Seeing implies all kinds of perception.

The mind is the Seer because without its attachment the sense organs cannot perceive their objects. In deep sleep the mind ceases to function, so the sense organs do not perceive any objects.

The modifications of the mind include Buddhi, Chitta and Ahamkara. The Witness or Self is the controller of the mind with its modifications. This is why we sometimes say, "My mind was elsewhere, I did not see it."

The Atman or the innermost Self is the ultimate perceiver. If a perceiver for the Atman is sought, the inquiry will turn back into a regressus ad infinitum.

All entities from the gross objects to the subtle mind are products of Avidya which is itself insentient. Therefore everything up to the mind are also insentient objects. The subjective character of some of these objects is only relative. But the Self is the ultimate Seer because no other Seer is known to exist.

2. The Seer is Changeless, the seen are Changing (verses 2-5)

In a seen-Seer relationship, the Seer must be constant and changeless while the seen are changing. The objects are perceived with their changes in form, color and name, but the Seer, the eye at the gross level is a unity.

The one characteristic of the objects is their changeability. Change is possible only in things which are imagined with reference to a substratum, as is the case of a rope (which is constant) imagined variously as a snake, a garland, a stick, or a waterline. The characteristic of the Seer is unchangeability.

The eye, on account of its changeable nature, becomes and object for the mind which is its Seer. The eye is subject to changes of vision ranging from blindness to sharp sight. This degree of sensitivity applies also to the other sense organs. The mind perceives these changes and feels that 'I am blind', 'I am deaf', etc.

The mind has its own states that are illuminated by Consciousness: desire for the satisfaction of sensual pleasure, determination and doubt of the objects perceived by sense organs, faith and disbelief in the result of Karma and the existence of God, steadiness which sustains a human when the individual is physically or otherwise tired, modesty, understanding, fear and other states.

The list of the states of mind described here is given in Aitareya Upanishad (3-2) and Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (1-5-3).

Since the mind has these changes of state, it becomes the object and the Consciousness (Self or Atman) its perceiver.

5. This Consciousness does neither rise nor set. It does not increase; nor does it suffer decay. Being self-luminous, it illumines everything else without any other aid.

Unlike the mind, the Consciousness does not rise from a previous non-existence, nor set into such non-existence. It is the Witness of such rise and set of all other objects.

Every perceived entity of the empirical world possesses six characteristics: birth (janma, existence (astitva), growth (vR^iddhi), change (vipariNAm), decay (apakShaya) and destruction (nAsha). But Consciousness has none of the characteristics of a perceived entity. By negating birth and decay, the four other characteristics are also negated in Consciousness. Growth and decay are only possible for those entities which have parts. But Consciousness is without parts.

Since there is nothing else to illuminate it, the Atman or Consciousness is self-luminous and illuminates every other object it sees.

3. Objects that Reflect Consciousness and Appear Luminous (verses 6-7)

6. Buddhi appears to possess luminosity on account of the reflection of Consciousness in it. Intelligence (Buddhi) is of two kinds. One is designated egoity (ahaMkR^itiH), the other as mind (antaHkaraNaM).

The Conscious Self (cidAtmA), though self-luminous, has no manifestation, because from the absolute standpoint there is no other object which can be manifested by Consciousness. But on account of the superimposition of ignorance (avidyA) a modification appears known as mind (antaHkaraNaM) which though insentient (jaDa) (being the product of avidyA) appears as conscious on account of the association of consciousness or Atman with it. The Atman appears as Buddhi when associated with Antahkarana. The Buddhi, on account of its association with Consciousness, appears to be endowed with agency, will etc.

Antahkarana: Buddhi, Chitta, Ahamkara and Manas

The assembly of Buddhi, Chitta, Ahamkara and Manas is known as Antahkarana. All these objects which are insentient (being products of Avidya) appear sentient on account of the reflection of the Conscious Self.

Buddhi or intelligence is the internal organ which is subject to various modifications. One such modification is the Ahamkara (ahaMkR^itiH) or egoism. Another is the faculty of memory (chit). A third one is the mind (manas). Antahkarana thus has four functions: the Ahamkara (ego), Buddhi (determining faculty), Mind or Manas (volition and doubt) and Memory or Chit (storage of impressions).

Consciousness imparts the appearence of sentiency to all objects from egoism to the body that has the sense organs. When it comes in contact with ego, it becomes completely identified and is known as Jiva. The body acquires some of the apparent sentiency, like a red hot iron ball in fire, on account of its association with the ego.

4. Three Kinds of Identifications and Their Removal (verses 8-9)

8. The identification of the ego with the reflection of Consciousness, the body and the Witness are of three kinds, namely, natural, due to (past) Karma, and due to ignorance respectively.

Natural: The moment the reflection of Consciousness and the ego (Ahamkara) come into existence they become identified with each other. The ego manifests itself under the influence of this reflection. Therefore this identification is called natural or innate. The experience resulting from this identification is, "I know "(ahaM jAnAmi).

Karma: The ego identifies itself with a particular body according to its past acts, virtuous or otherwise. Birth in a particular body is always determined by Karma. The experience resulting from this identification is, "I am human" (ahaM manuSyaH).

Ignorance: Ignorance of the real nature of Consciousness is called here delusion (bhrAnti). This identification can be removed only by knowing the real nature of Consciousness. The experience resulting from this identification is, "I am or I exist" (aharmAsma)

9. The mutual identification of the ego and the reflection of Consciousness, which is natural, does not cease so long as they are taken to be real. The other two identifications disappear after the wearing out of the result of Karma and the attainment of the knowledge of the highest Reality respectively.

Since the natural identification is like the reflection of the sun in water in a pot, this can go only when the water pot ceases to be.

The karmic identity with the body lasts as long as the body lasts, wearing out the effects of karma. At the time of swoon and deep sleep the effects of Karma are temporarily suspended since the body becomes unconscious.

The delusive (third) identify is destroyed only by Knowledge that makes Ahamkara disappear in Brahman.

The three kinds of identification described above disappear simultaneously when the Jiva realizes itself as Brahman.

5. Atman and the Three States of Living (verses 10-11)

10. In the state of deep sleep, when (the thought of) ego disappears the body also becomes unconscious. The state in which there is the half manifestation of the ego is called the dream state and the full manifestation of the ego is the state of waking.

In the deep sleep state, the ego does not merge with Atman, but only merges itself in the causal ignorance which is characterised by the nonapprehension of empirical objects. There is no perception of duality, and awareness of the body and the karmic actions are temporarily suspended in the deep sleep state.

In the dream state, the ego does not perceive any object external to itself. The seer, the objects seen and the act of seeing which constitute the dream experiences are only the mental modifications of the ego. The dream experiences, though they appear real in the dream, are outside the body of the seer, so from the standpoint of the waking state, it is only a partial manifestation of the ego.

In the waking state the ego experiences the gross external objects by means of its internal organs. The ego and the non-ego which constitute the entire world of experience are both cognized in the waking state. In dream it is the mind alone of the sleeper which appears both as the ego and the non-ego. Therefore the full manifestation of the experience covering both ego and non-ego is seen only in the waking condition.

6. The Subtle Body (Linga Sharira) (verse 12)

The Antahkarana is really the subtle body known as the lingam, which enables Jiva to realize Brahman. This subtle body has been described in other Vedantic texts as composed of seventeen parts, viz., five organs of perception, five organs of knowledge, five modifications of prana, mind (manas) and intellect (buddhi).

7. Maya and Its Powers (verses 13-15)

Brahman, which is beyond all causal relations, cannot create the material world with its indubitable experiences. Therefore the scriptures postulate Maya as the cause of the appearance of the universe. This Maya is extremely illusive. It cannot be described either as real or unreal. The best way to describe Maya is to explain its two aspects: its powers of projecting and veiling.

Maya's Projecting Power

The projecting power of Maya creates everything from the subtle body to the gross universe. This leads one to think of the pure and attributeless Atman to be Viswa, Taijasa and Prajna, associated with the experiences of waking, dream and deep sleep. It is, again, under the influence of this aspect of Maya that the non-dual Brahman appears as the manifested manifold.

The nature of Brahman is Existence-Consciousness-Bliss (sacchidAnanda vastuni). Still, from the relative standpoint Brahman appears as a cause of the unvierse because the mind seeks a cause.

14. The manifesting of all namesand forms in the entity which is Existence-Consciousness-Bliss and which is the same as Brahman, like the foams etc. in the ocean, is known as creation.

Entity: Reality is not a void or negation as the Buddhists contend. The appearance of the manifold cannot be based on an Absolute negation. In empirical experience, every appearance has a positive substratum. The illusion of names and forms appears from, and disappears in, Brahman.

Manifestations of foams, bubbles and waves on the ocean are not separate from the ocean since they are essentially water. At the same time, they are not identical with the ocean because we do make a distinction between them. In the same way, the universe is not separate from Brahman but appears to be separate due to Maya. From the causal standpoint, Brahman is both the material and efficient cause of the world.

Maya's Veiling Power

15. The other power (of Maya) conceals the distinction between the perceiver and the perceived objects which are cognized within the body as well as the distinction between Brahman and the phenomenal universe which is perceived outside (one's own body). This power (shakti) is the cause of the phenomenal

8. The Nature of Jiva (verses 16-19)

16. The subtle body (Lingam) which exists in close proximity to the Witness (Sakshin) identifying itself with the gross body becomes the embodied empirical self, on account of its being affected by the reflection of Consciousness.

Empirical self: It is that which thinks itself as the agent, enjoyer etc. It is this Jiva that appears to die and be reborn etc. But the Sakshin or Atman is birthless, deathless, immutable and without attributes.

If the Jiva as the embodied self is unreal, then liberation is not possible for it. Since the Sakshin is ever free, it needs no liberation. Then who is seeking liberation from whom?

The projecting power of Maya superimposes the Jiva or the embodied self on the ever free Atman, thereby also veiling the real nature of Atman. Thus liberation becomes necessary to experience the real nature of Atman through Knowledge.

Just as Atman is falsely identified with the Jiva, Brahman is falsely identified with the objective universe by the powers of Maya. This false identity disappears when the veiling power of Maya disappears.

9. Thou and That (verses 20-21)

20. Every entity has five characteristics, viz., existence, cognizabilily, attractiveness, form and name. Of these, the first three belong to Brahman and the next two to the world.

Thus the first three characteristics Sat, Chit, and Ananda belong to Brahman and the names and form are the chief characteristics of Maya.

21. The attributes of Existence, Consciousness and Bliss are equally present in the Akasha (ether), air, fire, water and earth as well as in gods, animals and men etc. Names and forms make one differ from the other.

This makes Thou (tvaM) the same as That (tat), except for the superimposition of a name and form. The process of realizing it involves the removal of the names and forms.

10. Samadhi as a Tool to realize the Self (verses 22-29)

22. Having become indifferent to name and form and being devoted to Satchidananda, one should always practise concentration (samAdhi) either within the heart or outside.

Samadhi is one-pointedness of the mind by which the student feels his steady identity with Brahman. This is obtained by concentration or meditation. The meditation can be done within the Heart as the seat of Paramatman or with the help of an external object such as a word, sound, image or any other symbol. These two modes of concentration are meant for different temperaments.

Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa Samadhi

23. Two kinds of Samadhi to be practised in the heart (within one's self) are known as Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Savikalpa Samadhi is again divided into two classes, according to its association with a cognizable object or a sound (as an object).

Savikalpa: In this Samadhi, the practitioner concentrates his mind on Brahman without completely losing such distinctions as the knower, knowledge and the known. This is the initial step in the practice of concentration.

Nirvikalpa: In this Samadhi the practitioner makes himself free from all thought of distinctions, as the knower, knowledge and the known.

24. Desire etc. centred in the mind are to be treated as (cognizable) objects. Meditate on Consciousness as their Witness. This is what is called Savikalpa Samadhi associated with (cognizable) objects.

The process of the meditation is this: Whenever any thought appears in the mind, take it to be an object and be indifferent to it. But think of the Atman as your real nature, eternal and permanent. The object which is an idea appears and disappears. This sort of concentration is always associated with an object of thought.

25. I am Existence-Consciousness-Bliss, unattached, self-luminous and free from duality. This is known as the (other kind of) Savikalpa Samadhi associated with sound (object).

Existence etc.: Sat, Chit and Ananda are the natural characteristics of Atman.

Unattached: Unrelated to Chitta or mind whose functions are seen as desire, volition etc. Atman is also unattached to virtue and vice, weal and woe,
(relative) knowledge and ignorance etc.

Self-luminous: The existence of Atman can never be doubted even when the relative objects are absent as in deep sleep. "(That Brahman) is unseen but seeing, unheard but hearing." "Thou couldst not see the Seer of sight." -- Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.

While practising this concentration the practitioner thinks, "I am the Witness, the innermost Self". The object of his meditation is the non-dual Self free from the ideas of desire etc. which are foreign to Atman. There is only a current of self-consciousness. This sort of concentration is called Savikalpaka as it is not free from ideas altogether. Such ideas as, "I am unattached," etc. are present in this Samadhi.

26. But the Nirvikalpa Samadhi is that in which the mind becomes steady like the (unflickering flame of a) light kept in a place free from wind and in which the student becomes indifferent to both objects and sounds on account of his complete absorption in the bliss of the realization of the Self.

Mind etc.: Through the constant practice of the Savikalpa Samadhi, mind becomes free from all distractions which is the icsult of attachment to sense-objects. Therefore he, then, becomes competent to practise Nirvikalpa Samadhi in which the mind becomes steady like the unflickering flame of a candle kept in a windless place.

The Nirvikalpa Samadhi is the highest kind of concentration in which the practitioner realises his real Self. In this Samadhi the functions of the mind are stopped and the practitioner experiences the Highest Bliss.

This Samadhi is characterized by the absence of the knowledge of the subject-object relationship. Apparently it is like that state of calmness and tranquillity which pervades a stone, because in the Nirvikalpa Samadhi the mind stops its functioning. But it should not be mistaken for stupor or deep sleep in which state alone one experiences absence of duality. The difference between deep sleep and Nirvikalpa Samadhi is that in the former state there is no knowledge of Self, but in the latter there exists no feeling of not knowing the Self, because in the Nirvikalpa Samadhi one becomes identified with the ever-Conscious Atman.

Nirvikalpa Samadhi which is identical with the Highest Knowledge can be attained only as a result of discrimination between the real and the unreal. After this discrimination, the student becomes indifferent to everything of the relative world. This Samadhi is possible only for him who has become established in complete renunciation.

In this Samadhi one becomes free from all thoughts or ideas but infilled with Supreme Bliss.

"It is just like an empty pitcher placed in the sky, having nothing inside and outside; and again it is just like a full pitcher placed in the sea, full (of water) both inside and outside." -- Vashista Ramayana

11. Becoming a Jivanmukta (Liberated while Living) (verses 30-31)

As a result of the constant practice of Samadhi, described above, it becomes subsequently quite natural and spontaneous. Then the student realises Brahman everywhere.

30. With the disappearance of the attachment to the body and with the realization of the Supreme Self, to whatever object the mind is directed one experiences Samadhi.

31. By beholding Him who is high and low, the fetters of the heart are broken, all doubts are solved and all his Karmas (activities and their effects) wear away.

By beholding Him: That is, by realising Brahman throughout the manifested manifold.

Who is high and low: The word high (para) signifies Brahman, what is known as cause of the universe. The word low (apara) signifies the universe etc. which are the effects. It is the non-dual Turlya Brahman alone that exists everywhere, both in the cause and in the effect.

Fetters etc.: This denotes ideas of agency etc. which are falsely superimposed on the Self. This is due to ignorance.

All doubts: That is, the doubts regarding the nature of Self.

All his Karmas etc.: For a Jnani the accumulated works (saMcitakarma) as well as fresh works (AgAmikarma) do not yield any result. Only the frutescent works (prArabdhakarma), as a result of which a man has got his present body, continue to produce their result. This work yields its result so long as the body lasts. But this explanation is offered only from the standpoint of the ignorant who see even a Jnani subject to disease, misery, hunger, thirst etc. But a Jnani who has made himself quite free from the body-idea does not feel the effect of any Karma. For him all works and their effects are non-existent.

"He who knows Brahman, verily, becomes Brahman." -- Mundaka Upanishad 3-2-9

The treatise practically ends here, but in order to clear any doubts that the student may still have about the Jiva and its actual relationship with Brahman, these points are explained in the remaining verses.

12. Jiva and Atman are Identical with Brahman

The Jiva in reality is Sakshin and identical with Brahman. The Sakshin considers itself to be Jiva owing to his identification with the Upadhis.

32. There are three conceptions of Jiva (Consciousness), namely, as that limited (by) prana etc., as that presented (in the mind) and the third one Consciousness as imagined in dream (to have assumed the forms of man etc.)

According to the first theory, Sakshin (the Seer) appears to be subject to various Upadhis (limitations) of Prana, sense-organ, mind etc. and thus regards himself as Jiva. It is like the infinite space (Akasha) portions of which appear to be limited by pots etc.

According to the second theory, the Consciousness (Sakshin) appears to be fallaciously presented in the mind and this presentation is known as Jiva. It is like the reflection of the sun in water. The reflection always partakes of the qualities of the medium in which it is reflected as the reflection of the sun is seen to be moving etc. with the movement of the water. Similarly, the presentation of Consciousness in the mind partakes of the qualities of the mind, such as agency, desire, volition etc.

According to a third theory, the nature of Jiva is the same as the nature of various beings one sees in dream. In dream, on account of the absence of the knowledge of reality, one thinks of himself as king, god, or beggar etc. Similarly, Atman, also, through the ignorance of its real nature, thinks of itself as man, or animal etc. According to the author of this treatise, the first theory (avAcChinnavAdaH) tells us that the real nature of Jiva is Brahman. This view is, however, not accepted by all schools of Vedanta.

How is it possible for a limited entity (Jiva) to be identical with the Absolute Brahman?

33. Limitation is illusory but that which appears to be limited is real. The Jivahood (of the Self) is due to the superimposition of the illusory attributes. But really it has the nature of Brahman.

Illusory: The idea of limitation is illusory. What is the nature of the limitation that is superimposed upon Consciousness (Sakshin) which is without parts etc.? This limitation is said to be caused by Prana etc. Ordinarily, limitation (avacChedaH) is seen to be of the following kinds:

A pillar is limited by the ground on which it stands. Or a part of it is covered by roof etc. This sort of limitation is not possible in Atman because It is without parts.

A frog is seen to be swallowed by the snake. But prana etc. cannot act similarly with regard to Self; for, It is always complete, without parts, without activity and ever peaceful. This is full and that is full.

An elephant is seen to be trimmed by the will of its care-taker. But Prana etc. cannot act likewise with regard to Atman; for being themselves of insentient nature, Ptana etc. are subservient to Atman.

Hence no kind of limitation by Prana etc. can be predicated of Atman. Therefore the limitation which appears to be superimposed upon Atman is illusory.

Real: Sakshin or Self is real, because it is the same everywhere and at all times.

Jivahood: The appearance of Jiva is not possible without the association of Upadhis. The following analogy of a scholiast is interesting. Rahu always exists in the firmament. But it cannot be directly perceived except in association with the solar or the lunar disc. Similarly Sakshin also becomes an object of perception (Jiva) only in association with egoism, Prana etc.

It is etc.: The Sakshin is the same as Brahman. It may be contended that if the idea of limitation (Jivatvam) and what limits it (Prana etc.) be unreal, then Sakshin also (what appears to be limited) is unreal. But this contention is refuted thus: Sakshin is not unreal because it is the same as Brahman. A woman wearing anklets, through illusion, considers her feet to be entwined by a snake. With the removal of the illusion, the snake idea vanishes: but her feet remain as they are. Similarly the illusion of limitation and what limits, is removed by Knowledge. But the Sakshin always exists.

13. Jiva and Jagat

Both Jiva and Jagat are the products of Maya; hence they are cognized so long as a man is in a state of ignorance.

37. These two, dating from time without beginning, have (only) empirical existence and exist till one attains liberation. Therefore both are called empirical.

38. Sleep, said to be associated with Consciousness wrongly presented (in the mind) and of the nature of concealment and projection, at first covers the (empirical) individual self and the cognized universe, but then imagines them (in dream) afresh.

Why are the Jiva and the Jagat, as cognized in dream, imaginary or illusory?

39. These two objects (namely, the perceiving self and the perceived world) are illusory on account of their having existed only during the period of (dream) experience. It is because no one after waking up from clream sees those objects when one dreams again.

From this analogy it can be said that the entire world of experiences, perceived as real during the state of ignorance, are illusory or imaginary on account of their non-perception after the attainment of Knowledge.

The Paramarthika Jiva as distinguished from the Jivas of the waking and dream experiences is identical with Brahman.

42. But the Paramarthika Jiva knows its identity with Brahman to be (alone) real. He does not see the Other, (if he sees the other) he knows it to be illusory.

Other: He does not see any existence other than Brahman.

Illusory: The Paramarthika Jiva comes back to the relative plane of Consciousness he knows the world and the reflected Consciousness (Jiva) to be unreal.

The Jiva so long as it does not know the distinction between the Witness (dR^ik) and the perceived world (dR^ishya) thinks the aggregate of body, mind, sense organs etc., as the seer and the object (perceived world) as real. The Vyavaharika Jiva is he who knows the ego (seer) as distinct from the aggregate of the mind, body and sense-organ etc., and thinks of the world not as real but the creation of the causal Self ultimately disappearing in it. He further knows this causal Self (Saguna Brahman) alone to be real. But the Paramarthika Jiva knows this causal relation to be unreal. The Brahman does not produce or manifest the world of ego and non-ego. The idea of Jiva is due to a false superimposition upon Brahman. It is like the superimposition of the snake-idea on the rope.

The Jivas known as VyAvahArika (experiencer of the waking state) and PrAtibhAsika (experiencer of the dream. state) on account of their being products of Avidya, are insentient by nature. Then how can they be described as Jiva? For Jiva is the same as the Jivatma as the Sruti says, "Entering by this living self" (Chandogya Upanishad 6-3-2, 3). The Brahman itself has entered into the Devata (shining element), of the nature of fire, earth, water, in the form of a Jivatma and manifested different names and forms.

43-44. As such characteristics of water as sweetness, fluidity and coldness appear to inhere in the waves, and then also in the foams of which the waves are the substratum, so also Existence, Consciousness and Bliss which are the (natural characteristics of Sakshin) appear to inhere in the Vyavaharika Jiva on account of its relation (with Sakshin) and through it similarly inhere in the Pratibhasika Jiva.

This is how the characteristics of Atman are superimposed (adhyAropa) upon the seer and the seen. Now comes the negation of this erroneous superimposition.

45. With the disappearance of the foam (in the wave), its characteristics such as fluidity etc. merge in the wave; again with the disappearance of the wave in the water, these characteristics merge, as before, in the water.

46. With the disappearance of the Pratibhasika Jiva (in the Vyavaharika Jiva) Existence, Consciousness and Bliss (which are its characteristics) merge in the Vyavaharika Jiva. When that also disappears (in Sakshin) these characteristics (finally) merge in Sakshin.

As with the merging of foam, wave etc. in the water, their fluidity etc. disappear therein, even so with the mergence of the Pratibhasika Jiva and the Vyavaharika Jiva in Sakshin (that is, in Brahman at the time of deep sleep and Mukti (liberation) respectively) the characteristics, such as Existence etc. inhering in them, disappear in Brahman. For names and forms as well as the characteristics belonging to them have no other existence apart from Brahman. They appear out of and disappear in Brahman or Sakshin. Its existence cannot be denied, in the past, the present or the future nor in the states of waking, dream or deep sleep. The Vyavaharika Jiva and the world that it perceives are non-existent before creation and after dissolution. They exist only during the period of ignorance. They appear out of Brahman, inhere in Brahman and finally disappear in Brahman. As foam and wave have no existence apart from water, so also the entire universe consisting of the ego and the nonego have no existence apart from Brahman. Verily all that exists is Brahman.