PDA

View Full Version : Five Ni+yama



yajvan
11 May 2008, 04:32 PM
Hari Om
~~~~~

Namaste


Yama or Śani is known to bring about discipline, restraint. This blossoms into focused attention, leadership qualities, tenacity, durability, steadfastness, logic, renunciation and the like. Many have a negative view of Śani, yet it is he, acting as moksha karaka [the significator of moksha] and supports the native's spiritual endeavors via this discipline.
One does not much negotiate with Śani. It is by his influence that discipline or restraint is gained. Some even say it is he as Yama that brings and manages death. In the case of the 5 yamas we talk of , it is the death of the yamas we wish to have succeed in our being… bringing death to hoarding, untruthfulness, injury and the like. So the association of Yama + Śani + behaviors we want to be rid of aligns well.

If we talk about the 5 niyamas, is there some additional inferences we can make ? This is the notion of this post.

Some call out niyama as observances, of this there is no doubt.
Yet if look at this word, perhaps it tells us something, ni+yama. This ni has the meaning of do, back, into or down into.

Also though as a prefix it also can be used as a meaning of negation. What then is my inference ? Ni (negating) + yama ( in this application) yama as death. That is, niyama can been seen as the negation death, therefore birth… One can then view niyama as giving birth and life to the observances, that bring life and substance.

It can also be looked at the negation of disease, ni+ya+ ama;
ni - the negation and + ya - restraint of + ama -disease. Hence this view suggests niyama is to negate and/or restrain disease (or dis-ease, that cause for mind-body dis-harmony).

And what brings life to earth, what one thing does the universe offer that without, no life can be started? That of light. And this light comes from the sun ( Surya, Ravi, Śiva, Rāma, Savitor). Light brings birth. Birth of the tattvas, of heat, of warmth and the ablity to grow. And this Sun from a jyotish perspective is the Atma-karaka of all. The Atman+significator. It is the core of all things and all beings.

What are the 5 niyamas?
We can see how they compliment the 5 yamas. The yamas and niyamas are not mutually exclusive but support each other and bring sustenance to each quality.

Śauca - cleanliness. Yet in essence, purity. We can consider the purity of the heart and mind ( thinking and emotions)
Santoṣa - contentment. The absence of greed and possessing in excess ( hoarding)
Tapas - is from tapa , to consume by heat or fire; this tapas blooms as tapasya. Most think austerity; some think religious austerity, penance, even severe restrictions. From a practical perspective , tapasya is self-control. This tapas compliments the yama of aparigraha¹.
Svadhayāya - is considered study. It is also self-knowing. The study that can assist the individual to become SELF-knowing.
Īśvara-praṇidhāna - this is the notion of recognizing and advancing ( some say adoring) Īśvara. Creating that personal relationship with Sarvesvara (Lord of All).

Chapter 1, sutra 23 of Patañjali’s yogadarśana (the yoga sutras of Patañjali) says the following:

Īśvara-praṇidhānad vā

Īśvara - Isa + vara or Lord, Ruler + vara or enclosing, circumference , space - Lord and Ruler of all - Sarvesvara (Lord of All)
praṇidhāna - respectful conduct , attention paid; profound religious meditation; vehement desire; one-pointedness
vā - or(vā) or further progress comes from dedication, devotion (praṇidhāna) to Īśvara- the most pure Puruṣa

Why did I take the liberty to call Īśvara the most pure Purusa? Because in the next sutra 24, Īśvara is defined as follows:
kleśa-karma-vipākasayair apara-mrshta puruṣa-viśeṣa īśvarah

This Īśvara is apara , has nothing beyond or after, having no rival or superior; He is beyond kleśas or afflictions, beyond actions or their vipāka, ripening, maturing of karma ( hence cause and any binding effects); He has viśeṣa or the quality, property or Puruṣa¹ - the Supreme Being, Soul-Self of the universe.

And the benefits of this Īśvara-praṇidhāna? Impediments or internal (antara) obstacles to ones progress are resolved or destroyed (abhava); so says sutra 29, Chapter1.

Yet to what progress are we alluding to? To ones sādhana.

I also take note of the 4 niyamas listed before Īśvara-praṇidhāna; IMHO this prepares one accordingly for the relationship with Him.


pranams

1. Words Used

aparigraha -non-hoarding, non-craving, non-clinging, or the absence of greed i.e. freedom of being compelled to attachments.
kleśas - are afflictions that bring kliṣṭa or torment, affliction, distress ;connected with pain or suffering
puruṣa पुरुष - means a man , male , human being , also a member or representative of a race or generation; yet puruṣa some spell Puruṣa as the Universal Being, not confined as a human, but the Universal Person. Some call this Puruṣa the primeval man as the soul and original source of the universe
abhava - non-existence, destruction.
antara - being in the interior

Arjuna
12 May 2008, 05:36 AM
Īśvara-praṇidhānad vā

Īśvara - Isa + vara or Lord, Ruler + vara or enclosing, circumference , space - Lord and Ruler of all - Sarvesvara (Lord of All)
praṇidhāna - respectful conduct , attention paid; profound religious meditation; vehement desire; one-pointedness
vā - or(vā) or further progress comes from dedication, devotion (praṇidhāna) to Īśvara- the most pure Puruṣa

Why did I take the liberty to call Īśvara the most pure Purusa? Because in the next sutra 24, Īśvara is defined as follows:
kleśa-karma-vipākasayair apara-mrshta puruṣa-viśeṣa īśvarah

This Īśvara is apara , has nothing beyond or after, having no rival or superior; He is beyond kleśas or afflictions, beyond actions or their vipāka, ripening, maturing of karma ( hence cause and any binding effects); He has viśeṣa or the quality, property or Puruṣa╣ - the Supreme Being, Soul-Self of the universe.

And the benefits of this Īśvara-praṇidhāna? Impediments or internal (antara) obstacles to ones progress are resolved or destroyed (abhava); so says sutra 29, Chapter1.

Yet to what progress are we alluding to? To ones sādhana.

I also take note of the 4 niyamas listed before Īśvara-praṇidhāna; IMHO this prepares one accordingly for the relationship with Him.

Namaste, Yajvan.

U seem to interpret Patanjali rather freely :)
If by "Soul-Self" U refer to Atman, then i doubt Ishvara can be named as "Soul-Self of the universe" in the context of Sankhya-yoga, since basically it has no such concept. Ishvara is eternally free Purusha, who revealed the Sankhya-yoga darshana. But both universe and other Purushas are completely separate from him.

Finally, Patanjali's system as per Yoga-sutra doesn't teach about "relationships with Ishvara". The whole stuff of Sankhya-yoga is about kaivalya, SEPARATION and solitude. Even if we interpret kaivalya from the point of view of Vedanta (which contradicts Patanjali), there still is nothing about any relationships.

yajvan
12 May 2008, 01:12 PM
Namaste, Yajvan.

U seem to interpret Patanjali rather freely :)
If by "Soul-Self" U refer to Atman, then i doubt Ishvara can be named as "Soul-Self of the universe" in the context of Sankhya-yoga, since basically it has no such concept. Ishvara is eternally free Purusha, who revealed the Sankhya-yoga darshana. But both universe and other Purushas are completely separate from him.

Ishvara is eternally free Purusha, who revealed the Sankhya-yoga darshana. But both universe and other Purushas are completely separate from him.The whole stuff of Sankhya-yoga is about kaivalya, SEPARATION and solitude. Even if we interpret kaivalya from the point of view of Vedanta (which contradicts Patanjali), there still is nothing about any relationships.

Namaste Arjuna,
you mention
U seem to interpret Patanjali rather freely ...exercisng some 'free thinking' in connecting the dots.:)


also
Ishvara is eternally free Purusha, who revealed the Sankhya-yoga darshana. But both universe and other Purushas are completely separate from him. I see your point.. Eternally free.

You mention
The whole stuff of Sankhya-yoga is about kaivalya, SEPARATION and solitude. Even if we interpret kaivalya from the point of view of Vedanta (which contradicts Patanjali), there still is nothing about any relationships. I see where you may have issue with the term 'relationship'. As I wrote Īśvara-praṇidhāna - this is the notion of recognizing and advancing ( some say adoring) Īśvara. Creating that personal relationship with Sarvesvara (Lord of All).
I could not think of a better word then relationship. Svami Hariharānanda-āraṇya points out Īśvara-praṇidhāna as surrender of all actions to Īśvara. I am not certain how this is done without a relationship. I am sure this is not a business transaction like one deposits money in a bank :rolleyes: . I also look to svami Laksmanjoo's words, and his are similar and stronger. I ask you for your views on the finer points of Īśvara-praṇidhāna.


You also mention seperation. This is a wise observation. Before complete unity can occur, one needs to experience this seperation. As to which the notion of viveka plays a big part. The discrimination between Purusa and Prakrti. This in fact is one of Patañjali's sutras he calls out.


There is a seperation that occurs. One experiences the SELF, silence, separate. That wholeness inside. This experince of wholeness can be the samadhi experince but what then is missing? Activity of the relative field of life outside of one's eyes being closed. In samadhi one is completely absorbed, there is no duality, no 'two'. Yet this seperation must come from somewhere?

This comes when this silence+activity is experinced while the eyes are open, in activity. There is the seperation of SELF within the surroundings. It is my opinion this fulfills Patañjali’s vision, this seperation is established.

But what then is next? What fulfills Vedanta. Here is how I have been taught.

With ones practice, over time ( so say the wise) , this silence is then seen on every level of life, every part of creation. The silence in me is the silence seen throughout creation. This then brings the Union of SELF and creation, brahmi chetana, that is:

Turiyatit chetana (sustained turiya) - some call Cosmic Consciousness
Bhagavat chetana - God consciousness
Brahmi chetana -Brahman Consciousness or this Union I mentioned above.Regarding kaivala. I look to the guidence found in pada 4 of Patañjali's work on how he views this... sutra 34:
purusa-artha-sunyanam gunanam pratiprasavah kaivalyam svarupa-pratistha va citi-saktir iti

kaivalya remains ( in short) by pratiprasavah, tracing ones nature back to the source. What shines forth then is this pure consciousness , this citi-saktir (cit sakti). It is finding that this consciousness is beyond the 3 gunas;
or looking to the Bhagavad-gita:

We find Krsna giving the same direction to Arjuna, be without the 3 gunas (Bhagavad-gita, Chapt 2.45). Actions in every case are performed by the 3 gunas (Chapt 3.27). It therefore makes sense that kaivalya must be without the 3 gunas as fundamental to the definition of liberation. Perhaps one can qualify it more or less, or augment the definition to be more robust.

Please help me on your POV or wisdom on how this may be starkly different, in principle, to the Vedanta view.

I am happy to hear your views on this matter and thank you again for your response.

May dharma-mega ( cloud pouring virtue) come to us all...

pranams

yajvan
16 June 2010, 12:06 PM
hariḥ oṁ
~~~~~~~

namastÚ

Post 1 above offered the following:



What are the 5 niyamas?
We can see how they compliment the 5 yamas. The yamas and niyamas are not mutually exclusive but support each other and bring sustenance to each quality.

Śauca - cleanliness. Yet in essence, purity. We can consider the purity of the heart and mind ( thinking and emotions)
Santoṣa - contentment. The absence of greed and possessing in excess ( hoarding)

Tapas - is from tapa , to consume by heat or fire; this tapas blooms as tapasya. Most think austerity; some think religious austerity, penance, even severe restrictions.
From a practical perspective , tapasya is self-control. This tapas compliments the yama of aparigraha╣.

Svadhayāya - is considered study. It is also self-knowing. The study that can assist the individual to become SELF-knowing.
Īśvara-praṇidhāna - this is the notion of recognizing and advancing ( some say adoring) Īśvara. Creating that personal relationship with Sarvesvara (Lord of All).

If we look to the 17th chapter of the Bhāgavad gītā Kṛṣṇa-ji calls out various forms of tapas. Body, speech & mind are called the tri-vidha tapaḥ or the 3 (tri) kinds (vidha) of tapas (tapaḥ) -self control or austerity , that I like to call strict economy. I'd like to offer all 3 but wish to start with speech as that is keen for HDF. There is no greater merit then to speak the truth or satya-vāk╣ . It's my view that there are value in these words.


Kṛṣṇa-ji says the tapas of speech is truthful words (satyaṁ-vākaṁ), speaking beneficially (hita is used meaning beneficial , advantageous, wholesome , suitable ) and dearly ( priya is used ), free from anxiety or uneasiness ( anudvega is used meaning without anxiety or uneasiness).

Why is this knowledge benefical ? IMHO it benefits the sender and receiver. The receiver is more attentive and not threatened. The sender remains with a balanced intellect and unagitated mind. This has a calming affect on both ( sender and reciever) . Calmness is in general a heathy state of affairs.

It is said, words full of truth yet delivered like daggers from the lips fall on deaf ears. I have found this to be true.

praṇām

words

aparigraha -non-hoarding, non-craving, non-clinging, or the absence of greed i.e. freedom of being compelled to attachments
vāk = vāc which is speech, voice , talk , language even of animals. Speech personified is known as bhāratī or sarasvatī , the goddess of speech

yajvan
18 June 2010, 07:11 PM
hariḥ oṁ
~~~~~~

namastÚ

In the yoga vasișțha ( also known as yogavasișțharāmāyaṇa) , vasișțha-ji informs śrī rāmaḥ , there are 4 gatekeepers at the entrance to the realm of enlightenment that is: self-control, spirit of enquiry, contentment, and good company.
This self-control is also tapas. It too is called out in the mahābhārata quite often. In one section pa˝caśikha-ji╣ tells king j˝ānadeva about this tapas of self-control, some call self-restraint. Here are some of the qualities:

calmness of disposition
faith
contentment
forgiveness
simplicity
humility
compassion for all creatures
frankness
restraint from false and/or useless discourses
devoid of vindictiveness and ;
without censure or applause of others
He continues and says, the self-controlled person is well-behaved, has good manners, and a master of his/her passions. He/she becomes desirous of mokṣa; bears joy and grief equally. Such a person never cherishes animosity for any one.

I think this list ( in which l left out a handful of other qualities) are worthy of merit to practice.

but do you practice them yourself yajvan? To the best of my ability - yet I fall ( often) , pick myself back up, and start again. That is the lesson as I see it - to start again.
What do you do that you find helps in this practice? Re-reading the discourses to keep it fresh in my mind.
What is the most challenging? When you practice these behaviours and still get kicked around like a football - these are my teachers words. Others in this world do not know you are practicing these methods and just do not care. Yet over time no animosity comes to you , as this is called out as one of the benefits with siddhi (success) of these practices.I use the word practice as that is all we can do until one is blessed with the realization of the SELF (mokṣa), then these items become one's natural behaviors with no effort expended.

praṇām



1. pa˝caśikha-ji is a ṛṣi discoursing to king j˝ānadeva in the śanti parvan section of the mahābhārata.