PDA

View Full Version : QuickRef: Rig Veda samhitA quotes on dharma



saidevo
01 July 2011, 10:26 AM
Path of non-violence

यन्नूनमश्यां गतिं मित्रस्य यायां पथा ।
अस्य प्रियस्य शर्मण्यहिंसानस्य सश्चिरे ॥ ५.०६४.०३ ॥

yannUnamashyAM gatiM mitrasya yAyAM pathA |
asya priyasya sharmaNyahiMsAnasya sashchire || 5.064.03 ||

5.064.03: Let us walk the lofty path shown by our good friends.
May I too be blessed with the fruits obtained by friends who walk the path of non-violence.

*** *** ***

May the miser become a donor!

अदित्सन्तं चिदाघृणे पूषन्दानाय चोदय ।
पणेश्चिद्वि म्रदा मनः ॥ ६.०५३.०३ ॥

aditsantaM chidAghRuNe pUShandAnAya chodaya |
paNeshchidvi mradA manaH || 6.053.03 ||

6.053.03 Resplendent pUShan, instigate the niggard to liberality,
soften the heart of the miser.

*** *** ***

A supportive society

ब्रह्म जिन्वतमुत जिन्वतं धियो हतं रक्षांसि सेधतममीवाः ।
सजोषसा उषसा सूर्येण च सोमं सुन्वतो अश्विना ॥ ८.०३५.१६ ॥
क्षत्रं जिन्वतमुत जिन्वतं नृन्हतं रक्षांसि सेधतममीवाः ।
सजोषसा उषसा सूर्येण च सोमं सुन्वतो अश्विना ॥ ८.०३५.१७ ॥
धेनूर्जिन्वतमुत जिन्वतं विशो हतं रक्षांसि सेधतममीवाः ।
सजोषसा उषसा सूर्येण च सोमं सुन्वतो अश्विना ॥ ८.०३५.१८ ॥

brahma jinvatamuta jinvataM dhiyo hataM rakShAMsi sedhatamamIvAH |
sajoShasA uShasA sUryeNa cha somaM sunvato ashvinA || 8.035.16 ||
kShatraM jinvatamuta jinvataM nRunhataM rakShAMsi sedhatamamIvAH |
sajoShasA uShasA sUryeNa cha somaM sunvato ashvinA || 8.035.17 ||
dhenUrjinvatamuta jinvataM visho hataM rakShAMsi sedhatamamIvAH |
sajoShasA uShasA sUryeNa cha somaM sunvato ashvinA || 8.035.18 ||

Promoting those who live the life of a brAhmaNa, would foster love.
Promoting those who live the life of a kShatriya, would foster valor.
Protecting the cow would augment the peoples' power.

The message of this mantra is that the valor of a king should be backed by the wisdom of the sages. At the personal level, the bodily strength should united with the spiritual. At the seeker's level, the vijnAna balam--strength of worldly knowledge, should unite with the jnAna balam--spiritual knowledge.

*** *** ***

Gambler, go cultivate your fields

अक्षैर्मा दीव्यः कृषिमित्कृषस्व वित्ते रमस्व बहु मन्यमानः ।
तत्र गावः कितव तत्र जाया तन्मे वि चष्टे सवितायमर्यः ॥ १०.०३४.१३ ॥

akShairmA dIvyaH kRuShimitkRuShasva vitte ramasva bahu manyamAnaH |
tatra gAvaH kitava tatra jAyA tanme vi chaShTe savitAyamaryaH || 10.034.13 ||

10.034.13: Giving serious attention (to my advice), play not with dice; pursue agriculture; delight in wealth (so acquired);
there, gambler, are cows; there is a wife; so has this (visible) sovereign Savita declared to me.

*** *** ***

Truth triumphs

सा मा सत्योक्तिः परि पातु विश्वतो द्यावा च यत्र ततनन्नहानि च ।
विश्वमन्यन्नि विशते यदेजति विश्वाहापो विश्वाहोदेति सूर्यः ॥ १०.०३७.०२ ॥

sA mA satyoktiH pari pAtu vishvato dyAvA cha yatra tatanannahAni cha |
vishvamanyanni vishate yadejati vishvAhApo vishvAhodeti sUryaH || 10.037.02 ||

10.037.02: May that world of truth everywhere protect me, through which it is that the heaven and earth, and days and nights, extend;
all the rest of creation which trembles has rest (there); the waters daily (flow), the sun rises every day.

*** *** ***

Ten plus one!

इमां त्वमिन्द्र मीढ्वः सुपुत्रां सुभगां कृणु ।
दशास्यां पुत्राना धेहि पतिमेकादशं कृधि ॥ १०.०८५.४५ ॥

imAM tvamindra mIDhvaH suputrAM subhagAM kRuNu |
dashAsyAM putrAnA dhehi patimekAdashaM kRudhi || 10.085.45 ||

10.085.45: Indra, showerer, make her the mother of sons, pleasing (to her husband);
give her ten sons, make her husband the eleventh.

*** *** ***

Heartless hoarding

य आध्राय चकमानाय पित्वो अन्नवान्सन्रफितायोपजग्मुषे ।
स्थिरं मनः कृणुते सेवते पुरोतो चित्स मर्डितारं न विन्दते ॥ १०.११७.०२ ॥

ya AdhrAya chakamAnAya pitvo annavAnsanraphitAyopajagmuShe |
sthiraM manaH kRuNute sevate puroto chitsa marDitAraM na vindate || 10.117.02 ||

10.117.02: He who, possessed of food, hardens his heart against the feeble man craving nourishment, against the sufferer coming to him (for help),
and pursues (his won enjoyment even) before him, that man finds no consoler.

*** *** ***

Wealth is like a wheel

पृणीयादिन्नाधमानाय तव्यान्द्राघीयांसमनु पश्येत पन्थाम् ।
ओ हि वर्तन्ते रथ्येव चक्रान्यमन्यमुप तिष्ठन्त रायः ॥ १०.११७.०५ ॥

pRuNIyAdinnAdhamAnAya tavyAndrAghIyAMsamanu pashyeta panthAm |
o hi vartante rathyeva chakrAnyamanyamupa tiShThanta rAyaH || 10.117.05 ||

10.117.05: Let the rich satisfy the poor implorer, and bend his eye upon a longer pathway.
Riches come now to one, now to another, and like the wheels of cars are ever rolling.

*** *** ***

Foolish not to share food

मोघमन्नं विन्दते अप्रचेताः सत्यं ब्रवीमि वध इत्स तस्य ।
नार्यमणं पुष्यति नो सखायं केवलाघो भवति केवलादी ॥ १०.११७.०६ ॥

moghamannaM vindate aprachetAH satyaM bravImi vadha itsa tasya |
nAryamaNaM puShyati no sakhAyaM kevalAgho bhavati kevalAdI || 10.117.06 ||

10.117.06: The foolish man wins food with fruitless labour: that food--I speak the truth--shall be his ruin.
He feeds no trusty friend, no man to love him. All guilt is he who eats with no partaker.

*** *** ***

Kinship by svadharma

कृषन्नित्फाल आशितं कृणोति यन्नध्वानमप वृङ्क्ते चरित्रैः ।
वदन्ब्रह्मावदतो वनीयान्पृणन्नापिरपृणन्तमभि ष्यात् ॥ १०.११७.०७ ॥

kRuShannitphAla AshitaM kRuNoti yannadhvAnamapa vRu~gkte charitraiH |
vadanbrahmAvadato vanIyAnpRuNannApirapRuNantamabhi ShyAt || 10.117.07 ||

10.117.07: The ploughshare furrowing (the field) provides food (for the ploughman); a man travelling along a road acquires (wealth for his master) by his movements;
a brAhmaNa expounding (the Veda) is better than one not expounding it; (so) let the man who gives become a kinsman to the man who gives not.

*** *** ***

Accord at an assembly

सं गच्छध्वं सं वदध्वं सं वो मनांसि जानताम् ।
देवा भागं यथा पूर्वे संज्ञानाना उपासते ॥ १०.१९१.०२ ॥
समानो मन्त्रः समितिः समानी समानं मनः सह चित्तमेषाम् ।
समानं मन्त्रमभि मन्त्रये वः समानेन वो हविषा जुहोमि ॥ १०.१९१.०३ ॥
समानी व आकूतिः समाना हृदयानि वः ।
समानमस्तु वो मनो यथा वः सुसहासति ॥ १०.१९१.०४ ॥

saM gachChadhvaM saM vadadhvaM saM vo manAMsi jAnatAm |
devA bhAgaM yathA pUrve saMj~jAnAnA upAsate || 10.191.02 ||
samAno mantraH samitiH samAnI samAnaM manaH saha chittameShAm |
samAnaM mantramabhi mantraye vaH samAnena vo haviShA juhomi || 10.191.03 ||
samAnI va AkUtiH samAnA hRudayAni vaH |
samAnamastu vo mano yathA vaH susahAsati || 10.191.04 ||

10.191.02: Assemble, speak together: let your minds be all of one accord,
As ancient Gods unanimous sit down to their appointed share.

10.191.03: The place is common, common the assembly, common the mind, so be their thought united.
A common purpose do I lay before you, and worship with your general oblation.

10.191.04: One and the same be your resolve, and be your minds of one accord.
United be the thoughts of all that all may happily agree.

*** *** ***

Some short Rig vedic statements

आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः ... १.०८९.०१

A no bhadrAH kratavo yantu vishvataH ... 1.089.01
May good sense and works reach us from all directions.
*****

निन्दितारो निन्द्यासो भवन्तु ॥ ५.००२.०६

ninditAro nindyAso bhavantu || 5.002.06
May those who revile be reviled.
*****

जही न्यत्रिणं पणिं वृको हि षः ॥ ६.०५१.१४

jahI nyatriNaM paNiM vRuko hi ShaH || 6.051.14
(O king!) Destroy the greedy miser, for a wolf is he.
*****

ब्रह्म वर्म ममान्तरम् ॥ ६.०७५.१९

brahma varma mamAntaram || 6.075.19
Brahman is the best armour, protecting me from within.
*****

विप्रा ऋतस्य वाहसा ॥ ८.००६.०२

viprA Rutasya vAhasA || 8.006.02
The learned spread the truth.
*****

सप्त मर्यादाः कवयस् ततक्षुस् तासाम् एकाम् इद् अभ्य अंहरो गात् । १०.००५.०६

sapta maryAdAH kavayas tatakShus tAsAm ekAm id abhya aMharo gAt | 10.005.06

The wise have established seven rules of conduct; he is a sinner who deviates from any one of them.

Manu lists out the seven rules as: Abstain from drinking, gambling, prostitution, hunting, doing bodily injury, reviling, seizure of property. (manu-smRti 7.50,51)
*****

देवस्य पश्य काव्यम् महित्वाद्यो ममार स ह्यः साम् आन ॥ १०.०५५.०५

devasya pashya kAvyam mahitvAdyo mamAra sa hyaH sAm Ana || 10.055.05
Behold the Gods' epic of wisdom of this world: he who died yesterday is living today.
*****

दक्षिणावन्तो अमृतं भजन्ते... १०.१२५.६

dakShiNAvanto amRutaM bhajante... 10.125.6
Donors are made immortal.
*****

समाना हृदयानि वः । १०.१९१.४

samAnA hRudayAni vaH | 10.191.4
May your hearts unite.

*** *** ***

Ref: Paraphrased from the Tamizh book 'veda dharmam' by Dr.V.V.Muthusami
http://www.thehinduretailplus.com/thehindu/fr/2003/12/19/stories/2003121901670300.htm

Jainarayan
01 July 2011, 11:44 AM
These are great. Thanks for posting.

I especially like these:

5.064.03: Let us walk the lofty path shown by our good friends. May I too be blessed with the fruits obtained by friends who walk the path of non-violence.

10.037.02: May that world of truth everywhere protect me, through which it is that the heaven and earth, and days and nights, extend; all the rest of creation which trembles has rest (there); the waters daily (flow), the sun rises every day.

1.089.01: May good sense and works reach us from all directions.

6.075.19: Brahman is the best armour, protecting me from within.

sarang
03 August 2011, 06:41 AM
Thanks for the wonderful post. Reading the translation with the original source makes all the difference. Thanks, once again, sir.

wundermonk
27 September 2011, 12:34 AM
I have been reading the article "Dharma in Hinduism" by Paul Hacker (http://www.springerlink.com/content/gm162h2np513mmm8/). He traces the various steps that have led to the emergence of the concept of Dharma or righteousness. An often-asked question in theology is whether there is an objective morality - is there a God who holds certain actions to be good or certain other actions to be bad? This paper approaches the issue from a Hindu perspective. I would like to summarize the arguments made in the paper in addition to my own thoughts in the hope that some patrons may find it interesting/useful.

Firstly, there is a general or common Dharma - sadharana dharma - which encompasses most of what has already been legalized. This includes stuff like prohibition of killing, violence, theft, etc. Certain other components of sadharana dharma include injunctions of truthfulness, friendliness, reverence for Gods, persons of respect, parents and teachers, not being adulterous, etc.

Here comes the most interesting part of the paper, in my view. The author quotes the ancient Hindu systematizer Kumarila [~700 AD] as follows:

"When good persons act according to certain rules, and no motive or goal is apparent in the realm of the observable, then this is to be understood as dharma."

[To me, this is reinforcing Krishna's exhortation to Arjuna. "Yours is your action alone. The consequence or fruits of your action are beyond your capacity of observation."]

The important question in this definition is who are "good persons"? For Kumarila the good or well-mannered person is one who, insofar as something is directly prescribed in the Veda, always orients himself toward the Veda. In such a person is, as it were, the substance of the Veda; he thus acts correctly and his decisions are a norm for others as well, in cases for which an existing Vedic prescription cannot be tracked down. The good, therefore, are those who orient themselves towards the Vedas whenever possible.

The paper goes on to state the following:

Dharma and adharma (that is, the opposite of dharma) do not go around saying, ‘‘That is us.’’ Nor do gods, Gandharvas, or ancestors declare what is dharma and what is adharma. One should model one’s conduct after the conduct that is unanimously approved in all countries by those who are well-mannered, aged, and self-disciplined, and who are free from greed and deceit.

The definition is radically empirical and lays the foundation for a morality that is not completely objective. Elements of subjectivity are incorporated. There is no superordinate principle from which dharma and adharma may be derivable. Only by experiential inquiry can one determine what dharma is: one must ask morally qualified, learned people. In order to establish or produce consensus, specific procedures are sometimes prescribed: the creation of committees that should consist of a certain number of members from different social groups.

However, there are unforeseen cases in which neither the Veda nor the practice of the good enable a decision about which conduct is dharma and which is not. What then should serve as the rule? Here what applies is that in doubtful cases the good person follows what satisfies his heart, his own inner feeling, what he feels driven to. This is the principle of atmatusti. Kumarila says: If a person ceaselessly directs his mind toward the Veda and his mind is purified by this, then what is satisfying to his heart is a yardstick in deciding what dharma is. If someone, over a long time, immerses himself in the Veda and in the knowledge of its contents, his imagination is formed in such a way that it follows the path determined by the Veda and cannot take a wrong turn. That is why it is taught: ‘‘Whatever thought occurs to one who knows the Veda by heart, this is a Vedic thought.’’ Such a thought is Vedic because it is formed from the residue of what is Vedic. Just as everything that grows in the salt mines of Ruma and in the lustrous golden soil of Meru becomes salt and gold, respectively, so it is with the inner condition of one who knows the Veda.

An example of the application of the atmatusti principle occurs in the drama Sakuntala by the poet Kalidasa. King Dusyanta doubts whether Sakuntala, whom he loves, is also suitable for him according to caste so that he could take her as a wife. In the end he decides according to the principle of atmatusti. He feels drawn to Sakuntala – therefore she must be suitable for him according to caste.

Thus, Dharma is not derivable from a philosophical principle or from a religious source, but rather only empirically ascertainable, whether from the Veda or from the consensus of the good with regard to geographical place or from deep self-inquiry.

To me, this seems a beautiful middle ground to tread – morality doesnt derive from merely injunctions in a single book. No single book, Sruthi or Smriti, can cover ALL situations. For Hinduism, Vedas lay the groundwork of philosophical thought and moral practices. These need to be used IN CONJUNCTION WITH common sense, reasoning and rationality.

PS: The author is conditioned on the AIT. Disregarding that, the article was quite readable.

sm78
27 September 2011, 07:06 AM
To me, this seems a beautiful middle ground to tread morality doesnt derive from merely injunctions in a single book. No single book, Sruthi or Smriti, can cover ALL situations. For Hinduism, Vedas lay the groundwork of philosophical thought and moral practices. These need to be used IN CONJUNCTION WITH common sense, reasoning and rationality.

IN CONJUNCTION WITH experience. Our existence is our experience, everything falls within its boundaries including religion, religious texts, god, gods, devil etc etc...it is beautiful and also only thing that makes good sense.

But religulous people continue to defy it and create also sorts of misery for every one, and unfortunately hinduism is not free from it either.

As long people wants to be slaves, they will remain slaves. It is okay for Islam since it wants to create slaves. Since in Hinduism moksha or liberation (as opposed to slavery) is the universal goal -- it is unfortunate people still keep hanging onto servitude.