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Thread: Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta विशिष्टाद्वैत- Series of Study

  1. #11
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    Re: Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta विशिष्टाद्वैत- Series of Study

    Harmony of Thought


    THE mystic vision of the Visishtadvaitin is the vision of the Ultimate and the Supreme as at once revealing in itself the Tattva and the Purushartha. It is also the vision of the Tattva as the “Tattva-Traya” as Cit, Acit and Isvara-“the one only without a second” as substantially “the there-in-one”. This was the revelation vouchsafed to the great Alvars, the God-intoxicated mystic saints of South India, no less than to the illustrious Acaryas-Nathmuni, Yamuna and Ramanuja. What was given to the Alavars in the deepest moment of their inward illumination as the quintessence of Truth came also to the Acaryas in a finished form as patterns of systematic exposition. Hence the Great sage Nathamuni not only collected the hymns of Alvars, the ecstatic outpourings of illumined hearts, and set them to music, giving their intrinsic beauty an appropriate articulate expression, but also applied himself to a systematic study of the inter-relations of logic and mysticism in the specific context of Visishtadvaita. The inspiration that Nathamuni initially provided was in a significant sense transmitted by Yamuna to Ramanuja.

    THE true Visishtadvadin ,-wedded to the principle of synthesis, intent on integration and harmonisation, -is a “Ubhaya Vedantin” in an original sense, which symbolised the unity of the Vedanta of the Heart” and “the Vedanta of the Head. The supreme is the Self, the soul of thy soul, to whom all that thou art - body, mind and life –belong as body to the soul. Awaken into the awareness of this wisdom by conscious dedication in complete surrender. That would in a way sum up the Ubhya Vedanta of Visishtadvaita, as it conveys the essence of the teachings of the Acaryas, while echoing at the same time the substance of its truth as felt and experienced in the unfathomed depth of the heart of the Alvars.



    In order to fully comprehend and appreciate these complex texts we recommend ‘slow reading’.
    Last edited by brahman; 18 March 2013 at 02:08 AM.
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  2. #12
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    Re: Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta विशिष्टाद्वैत- Series of Study

    Valid means of Certitude

    THE spirit of synthesis and harmonisation, so characteristic of Visishtadvaita, is seen well reflected even in its treatment of the Pramanas. The Pramanas are described as the instruments of knowledge. Visishtadvaita as propounded by sri. Ramanuja, recognises three such Pramanas, viz. Pratyaksha or sense perception, Anumana or inference and Sabda or scriptural testimony. There is a gradation in the order in the fore-going order of the presentation of the Pramanas. We move from the lower to higher and then to the highest, in the order as given. The higher Pramana is more comprehensive than the lower, but neither duplicates the other. The one reinforces and supplements the other. There can be no mutual conflict or contradiction. What cannot be established by Pratyaksha or Anumana has to be authenticated by Sabda. And it would be wrong to take Sabda as ever contradicting Pratyaksha or Anumana. This is the spirit of synthesis, which Visishtadvaita brings to bear on the structure and scheme of the Pramanas. In common with other schools of Vedanta, Visishtadvaita accords a special, superior status to Sabda as Pramana. The recognition of Sabda as Pramana is itself a distinctive feature of Vedantic thought. While other systems of world philosophy - particularly those of the west -may be satisfied with sense-perception and logical reasoning as sufficient sources and instruments of valid knowledge, it is Vedanta that recognizes a third instrument in Scriptural Testimony and regards it as higher than all others.

    There are philosophies in the world - both oriental and occidental - that acknowledge the importance of intuition, but Vedanta belongs to the unique distinction of assigning a superior importance to scriptures that embody spiritual intuitions of sages and seers. This is because Vedanta is not mere play of the intellect but contains the quintessence of profoundly consummate spiritual experience, which has not merely a capacity to carry conviction but a power to inspire and transform man at the deepest levels and in subtlest dimensions. Here lies the significance of Vedanta as at once both philosophy and religion.




    In order to fully comprehend and appreciate these complex texts we recommend ‘slow reading’.
    Last edited by brahman; 20 March 2013 at 04:51 AM.
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    Re: Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta विशिष्टाद्वैत- Series of Study

    The Three-fold Testimony

    THE “tripod” of scriptural testimony that supports Vedanta is constituted by the Upanishads, Brahma Sutra and the Bhagavad Gita. The Brahma Sutra is a highly condensed presentation of the Upanishadic declarations and the arguments woven around and out of them. The Upanishads are esteemed as Sruti Vakyas par excellence. But on the superficial view, they seem sometimes to be inconsistent with themselves and call for a kind of harmonisation through interpretations and elucidations. The classification of such Vakyas as Bheda Srutis and Abheda Srutis is itself an admission of their mutual incompatibility. Visishtadvaita plays a significant role in reconciling the apparent contradiction between the two sets of Srutis with the aid of a third category named Ghtaka Sruti. The Ghataka Srutis that are invoked for the tasks of reconciliation and harmonisation also fulfil a deeper purpose in that they give a definite and positive lead in the shaping of the fundamental concepts of Visishtadvaita, which holds that both Bheda and Abheda Srutis are equally authentic and the key to their harmonisation lies in profounder synthesis provided by the Ghataka Srutis. It is the need for such synthesis that led to the revealing suggestion of the Sarira-Sariri relation.

    The consequences of the revelation are far-reaching in the realm of mysticism, no less than that of metaphysics, and deserves to be worked out fully and systematically by scholars engaged in the field.




    We are most deeply Indebted to Sri. K. Sheshadri for the informations in these posts(from 9 to 13)

    In order to fully comprehend and appreciate these complex texts we recommend ‘slow reading’
    Last edited by brahman; 26 March 2013 at 06:16 AM.
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    Re: Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta विशिष्टाद्वैत- Series of Study

    Thiruvoimozhi

    Works on Visishtadvaita, the theistic system of Vedantic philosophy propagated by Ramanuja, are comparatively few. Though the tenets of this school are in close accordance with tradition and are entitled to universal popularity, they are not widely understood as they as they deserve to be.

    The main reason for this is that this system combines the two Vedantas, Sanskrit and Tamil, and any one expounding it should be well versed in both. The Sanskrit Vedas reveal the truth as much as they hide; they are both explicit and implicit. It is to the immortal credit of Saint Nammaalvaar, the greatest of Tamil mystics, that, divinely endowed as he was with deep devotion and insight, he was the chosen soul, reveal in lucid terms, the heart of the Vedas. To anyone who has not studied the works of the Aalvar, particularly his Thiruvoimozhi, the vedic texts will always remain a field of apparent conflict and their reconciliation and consistent exposition, a task of subtle wisdom.


    Thiruvaimozhi for your kind perusal
    Last edited by brahman; 27 March 2013 at 02:11 AM.
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    Re: Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta विशिष्टाद्वैत- Series of Study

    Applied Esoteric unwrapped

    To show that the “Tamil Vedas”- as the 'Prabandhas' of the Aalvars are called- clarify what is only implied in their Sanskrit original by citing texts from both in support, calls for separate and lengthy treatment. For the purpose of a preface, suffice it to give two or three illustrations.

    ON all the fundamental topics of philosophy (Tatva, Hita and Purushartha) the Truth, the Means and the Goal, what is suggested or implicitly stated in the Sanskrit texts is made explicit and clear in the Tamil verses. Referring to the Jiva, the individual soul, the view of the Vedas is given In the Vedanta Sutra II-3-19 which states: “A knower only”, meaning that, that is the distinguishing feature of the soul, that is neither mere knowledge nor it is Jada(non-intelligent).An equally innate character of the soul, namely its subservience to Him(daasya) is but faintly indicated in the Sanskrit texts of the verses, while it is made clear beyond doubt by Nammaalvaar, and in Ramanuja’s school, this characteristic of Jiva is given more prominence than knower-ship.

    Secondly, reference may be made to the Vedanta Sutra III-3-56. On the question whether all the Brahma Vidays taught in the Upanishads are one or they are different, the Sutra gives the conclusion: “They are different, for the words and the rest(describing them) are different.” For holding one Vidya different from another, among the tests to be applied are the words actually used in the text. The terms used in the Upanishad are “veda”, “upaasitha” etc. The Taittiriya, text however uses the word “yunjitha” with reference to the Vidya known as “nyaasa”, thus distinguishing this Vidya as different from others. In holding that this Vidya is included within the scope of this Sutra, Ramanuja and his followers rely on the authority of Nammaalvaar, the foremost exponent of “Nyasa Vidya” or means of surrender.

    Finally the concluding Sutra IV-4-22, in which, basing on saastras, the text only asserts: “There is no return, there is no return, it is so stated in the Sabda(Vedas)”. The mere statement of the Vedas, according to Ramanuja, cannot bind the Supreme Being, a Svatantra. And so, turning to the saying of Nammaalvaar and quoting in support of the text of the Gita, Ramanuja asserts that it is His will not to send a devotee back to this world. For, to do so, will nullify all the efforts taken by Him in search of a Jnaani. Truly, one does not forsake what one has secured after a long quest. Thus it will be seen that but for the light and leading provided by Nammaalvaar, Ramanuja and his predecessors could not have explained the mystic texts of the Sanskrit Vedas in the way they have actually done.

    The earliest exponents of Visishtadvaita have, therefore, freely called to their aid the works of the Aalvars in Tamil, particularly Nammaalvaar, the chief of them, in comprehending the Vedic texts which presented difficulty in exposition. Following the line of these predecessors, Ramanuja not only write his Bhashya , a commentary on the Vedanta sutras of Vyasa, but also studied, before expounding them, the works of Nammaalvaar, under an aacarya of accredited authority. Hence, it is that Ramanuja by right, and his followers down to the present day, by courtesy, are called “Veda-Maarga-Pratishtaapakas” and “Ubhaya Vedanta Pravartakaas” (the founder of the Vedic path and the propagators of both Vedas, Sanskrit and Tamil).


    Continue soon


    Our sincere gratitude to Sri. Chakravarti
    ॐ इदम् न मम
    be just l we happy

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