Paradvaita: derived from para (highest/absolute) + advaita (non-duality). Paradvaita (Absolute Monism) refers to the non-dualistic philosophy derived from Tantric texts (Bhairava Agamas and Shakta Tantras). Paradvaita is sometimes also referred to as Tantric Monism. The term Paradvaita was especially favored by a renowned teacher of Kashmir Shaivism, Mahamaheshvaracharya Abhinavagupta, and so also refers to the monistic teachings of Kashmir Shaivism.
Discussion: The Paradvaita philosophy espoused by Shaktism and Kashmir Shaivism is distinct from the Vedantic non-dualism of Adi Shankara Bhagavatpadacharya in that Paradvaita treats matter and objective reality as an expression of consciousness itself. All of reality is but a reflection within the consciousness of Brahman. Paradvaita describes Brahman as both Prakasha (Supreme Light of Consciousness) and Vimarsha (reflective self-awareness of its own being), together forming the one indivisible Absolute Reality. Paramashiva is the nature of Prakasha, and Parashakti is the nature of Vimarsha, the very self-reflection of that Prakasha. Paradvaita elaborates that without Vimarsha, there could be no existence or creation, and Prakasha would be eternally inert and unmanifest. This entire creation unfolds into existence upon the first vibration of self-awareness within the Universal Oneness. Manifest reality is, therefore, inseparable from, and is as real as the reality of the unmanifest Brahman.
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In whom the Adityas, Rudras and Vasus are held together; in whom are set firm the worlds; that which was and that which shall be – tell me of that Support – who may He be? (Atharvaveda Samhita X.7.22)