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Thread: Aditi and Ushas in later-Vedic literature?

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    Aditi and Ushas in later-Vedic literature?

    Namaste,

    It is said that Goddess Aditi and Ushas are eulogized in the Vedas,especially the Rig Veda.Vedic worship mainly involved worship offered through Yajnas so there may not have been images(Murthies) involved.I am using later-Vedic not in a historical or a chronological sense but to distinguish Vedic-Yajna method of worship from Bhakti/Temple/Murthi oriented worship.Goddess Saraswati is also extolled in the Vedas but She also has a distinct(physical) form as defined in the Agamas and is found in many Puranic narratives.In the same manner, are Aditi and Ushas found anywhere in Puranas,Itihasas,Agamas and Tantras?Do they have a specific form and are there any stotras/stories glorifying them?Is there any reason why very great deities like Aditi and Ushas seem to be unknown to most Hindus or are found rarely in the post-Vedic(i.e. Smriti) literature(I am assuming they are not found and I may be completely wrong)?

    In some Puranic stories,one Aditi,a consort of Kashyapa Prajapati, is known as the mother of the Devas/Adityas,is she the same Vedic Aditi or a different person?

    In some shlokas Devi(Shakti) is praised as both Aditi and Diti.Is there any Diti in the Vedas?
    He dances in the golden hall of Chidambaram, Let us worship His rosy anklet girt Feet.

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    Re: Aditi and Ushas in later-Vedic literature?

    Namaste

    There are no 2 Aditis. It is the same Aditi.

    In every manvantara (era of 1 manu) there comes into being a unique set of
    -- deva
    -- prajapati
    -- RshI
    -- gandharva
    -- nAga
    etc.

    One kalpa consists of 14 Manvantara, with 14 Manus.
    In each new kalpa-cycle, Kashyap and Aditi become parents of 12 Aditya in the 7th manvantar of that kalpa
    and there is Diti too. So, the question "Is there a Diti in Vedas" is not appropriate.
    Diti is there in every kalpa-cycle - in the 7th manvantar.

    The Vedic mandala take things for granted as their purpose is hymns and chants and mantras.
    The purANa, particularly BhAgvat PurAN, unravel the mystery of the cyclic history.

    It is not like "XYZ happened one time" in the Vedas.
    Time is cyclic. What is described as each manvantara, kalpa, yuga happens again and again and again.

    That is why you come across : "In this kalpa / manvantar, XYZ is the prajapati, ABC is Indra, xxx is Surya, xxx is Chandra and so on.

    When there are apparently contradictory stories in the purANa, it is due to kalpa-bheda (differences owing to different kalpa). The same framework, but history, while repeating itself showed A in one kalpa and B in another, therefore one purana is talking about things happening in A kalpa while another is talking about the same major event in B kalpa.

    We are in the shveta-varaha kalpa -- reference : when varAha avatar was shveta (white-creamish) and not KRshNa (black-dark).

    USHA: Devi (PrakRuti) has so many aspects, Usha is one - this is how we understand Her.


    Last edited by smaranam; 30 May 2015 at 01:32 AM. Reason: explained cycle = 1 kalpa

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    Re: Aditi and Ushas in later-Vedic literature?

    Namaste Smaranam Ji,

    Thanks a lot for explaining about the cyclic occurrences.
    Just one doubt,I am maybe wrong but in this Rig Veda mantra Devi Aditi seems like a 'permanent deity' and not a 'position'.


    áditir dyaúr áditir antárikSam áditir mAtÁ sá pitÁ sá putráH
    víshve devÁ áditiH páñca jánA áditir jAtám áditir jánitvam

    Aditi is the heaven, Aditi is mid-air, Aditi is the Mother and the Sire and Son. / Aditi is all Gods, Aditi five-classed men, Aditi all that hath been born and shall be born.
    Should we consider Aditi here as impersonal rather than a person?
    He dances in the golden hall of Chidambaram, Let us worship His rosy anklet girt Feet.

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    Re: Aditi and Ushas in later-Vedic literature?

    Namaste Ram ji,
    Very good questions and good thread.

    * All deva have both an impersonal (common noun) and personal (proper noun) side. Meditate on meaning of the name to understand the impersonal side.
    Together the devas make the whole truth called Brahman. This is why devas are parts and aspects of Bramhan, but some are also positions taken by various jivas during kaala cycles.

    * The impersonal tattva (principles) take forms and shapes in the framework of time. The tattva are also associated with Daivi-guNa (Divine qualities).

    Aditi - meaning: Infinite, eternal (and this is perhaps why She may be KalicharaNji's secret Bramhan - 34th deva just like GAyatri , SAvitri etc.)
    Kashyap -- One who sees (seer) [Prajapati Kashyap has 13 wives who each give rise to a certain aspect of creation - either celestial or physical]
    Diti - bound, sankuchit, small, petty
    AnasUyA - not touched by jealousy or envy (asUyA)
    Atri - who is Beyond the three (tri) guNa
    VishNu - Infinite, Eternal, all-pervading, all-encompassing, pure, auspicious
    Agni - fire, brightness , purifier, burning impurity, Agni is in the mukha of VishNu (VishwarUpa)
    Indra - ruler, king, enjoyer of glamour (Indriya) - and king of Devas (administrative)
    PrajApati - Father of the creation (prajA) of all beings.

    * Veda glorifies and BhAgvat clarifies - beings, devas, aspects, things, existence, truth, sub-truths. [BhAgvat glorifies BhagvAn Shri KrshNa, NArAyaNa, Bramhan]
    * Vedas sometimes call the same Brahman by the different characteristics because they are all His characteristics.

    The vedas you read today are talking about current kapla, current manvantar and the pada (common noun, position) and nAma - proper noun are used interchangeably.
    see sb 8.13.1-6 in the next post to see what I mean.
    Aditi, daughter of prajapati Daksha and wife of prajapati Kashyhap gave birth to 12 divine beings who played the role of one of many deva-gaNa. First She had 6, and the stories before 7th was born say so.
    Then she had 7 and then 8 and then 12. So some people think these are contradictions in the Veda. No. These are historical snapshots when the other younger sibling Adityas were not yet born.

    * VishNu takes avatAr and honors a pair of jivas as parents each time upon request from devotees. Sometimes the same pair become parents when He takes the next avatArs.

    PRshNi-Sutapa : PRshNi-garbha
    Devaki-Vasudeva : Shri KRshNa (VAsudeva)

    Finally see what Bhagvat says about prajapati, manu, rushi, deva-gaNa ... (these are all amsha and amsha of amsha , but KRshNa is BhagavAn in full glory -
    ete ca amsha kalaaha pumsaha KRshNastu BhagavAn svayam - SB 1.3.28). So manus and prajapatis are not ordinary beings, they live for an entire kalpa.

    Remember - Vedas do not provide chronology, or explain history explicitly, or give qualifiers for each name uttered. Vedic hymns (Ruchi) are spontaneous poetic stuti (glorification) of all daivi prakruti as inspirations came.
    Indra as we know changes every manvantar (tomorrow, daityaraj Bali will be Indra by boon from Vishnu avatar VAman a.k.a. Urukrama, the 10th Aditya - a group of 12 devas for this 7th manvantar).
    So it is Indra-pada that is attained by deserving jivas. They all have features, characteristics, guNa, personal and impersonal aspects.

    Look at it this way: currently, this is our sun, this is our solar system, having shani, guru, mangal, budh... as planets.
    Milky way and Andromeda are galaxies.
    Tomorrow, there will be new galaxies, new solar systems, new planets.
    Everyone has a role to play.

    The potential to manifest galaxies and solar system remains, but there are different instances of galaxies, solar systems, planets and universes.
    Last edited by smaranam; 30 May 2015 at 10:12 PM.

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    Re: Aditi and Ushas in later-Vedic literature?

    Points to note: Reference: Shrimad BhAgvat purAN
    1. 2 kinds of creations (sarga) : A] vaikrut sarga (celestials) B] prAkrut sarga (physical body forms : human, animal, bird, plant, ET...)
    -- sb 3.10.26-28

    2. Impersonal side of Bramhadev = shabdabramhasvarup - sb 3.12.48.

    3. Every kalpa (of 14 manvantar) gives rise to celestials (vaikrut sarga - deva, rushi, manu, gandharva, yaksha, naga...) that live for the rest of the kalpa since birth
    4. sb 2.11 explains kaal vibhag (explains kaal -- units, cycles, nesting: truTi, nimish, kshaN, divas, varsha, mAs, yuga, chatur-yuga, manvantar, kalpa...)

    One kalpa = one nimeesha (flashing moment of VishNu). If VishNu became VAman, the 10th son of Aditi in one of 14 manvantar in one of gazillion kalpa, He is still VishNu
    Similarly Shiva becomes 11 rudra created by BramhA

    Last edited by smaranam; 30 May 2015 at 01:54 AM.

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    Re: Aditi and Ushas in later-Vedic literature?

    Reference :
    =======

    ** all manvantars : sb 8.1, sb 4.1
    SB 8.13.1-6
    Describes current (7th) manvantar
    current manu : shrAddhadeva , son of vivasvAn
    deva-gaNa (deva-groups) : 12 aditya (sons of kashyap - aditi), vasu (8), rudra (11), vishwedeva(33), marud-gaNa (49=7X7), ashwini-kumAr (2), RubhU
    sapta-rishi: kashyap, atri, vasishTha, vishwAmitra, gautam, jamdagnI, bharadvAj
    VishNu-avatAr vAman - 10th Aditya, son of Kashyap & Aditi (devmAtA)
    mother of 49 maruds = devmAtA dItI

    vivasvAn's wife vaDvA's sons : ashwini-kumAr
    vivasvAn's wife chhAyA's sons : sAvarNI, shanaishchar (shani), & daughter tapti


    FUTURE manvantars
    sb 8.13.11 -
    manvantar # 8 :
    8th manu: sAvarNI (born in previous manvantar - see sb 8.13.10)
    deva-gaNa: sutapA, virajA, amrutprabha
    indra : virochan-putra Bali (daityaraj Bali who snatched svarga putting devas in distress and then gave trailokya back to vAmandev, vishNu, who generously promised him Indrapad in the next manvantar)
    Currently Bali lives in sutala (since he has no place to go - gave trailokya back to the current true devas - listed in sb 8.13.1-6)
    saptarushi : gAlva, deeptiman, parshurAm (yes, same one - treta,in sahasrarjun time), ashwatthAmA(mahabharat), krupAchArya (mahabharat of last dvapar), rushyashrunga (from treta - who married Rama's older sister)
    bhagvadavatAr : sArvabhauma

    manu 9 : VaruNa's son DakshasAvarNa (VaruNa is one of 12 Adityas of current manvantar)

    and so on...

    Manu 1 - 4 : SB 4.1

    FIRST Manvantar:
    svAyambhuva manvantar sb4.1.1-9
    manu = svAyambhu, son of svayambhu = BramhA.


    manu 1 : svAyambhu
    deva-gaNa = tushit... 12 : tosh, pratosh,santosh,bhadra,shanti,iDaspati,idma.kavi,vibhU,svanha,sudeva,rochana (sb4.1.7)
    devmata = dakshiNA
    devpitA = yadnya -- avataar of VishNu
    out of these, rochan was the Indra (sb 8.1.20) , tushitas = deva-gaNa , saptarishi : urjasthamba etc.

    sb8.1.5 -- 2 types of bhagvad-avatAr in 1st manvantar: yadnyarup = yadnya (akuti putra) ; dnyanrup = kapil (devahuti putra)


    MANU 2 = agni-putra Svarochish sb8.1.19
    Indra = rochan
    deva-gaNa -- tushit etc.

    manu 3 = Uttam sb 8.1.23
    saptarishi: vasishtha's sons : pramada etc. sb 8.1.24
    indra = satyajit
    devas : satya, vedashruta, bhadra
    dharma & sunita's son satyasen -- avtar of vishnu

    manu 4: tAmas (brother of Uttam, son of Priyavrat) sb 8.1.27
    sb 8.1.28-31
    indra = trishikha
    deva = satyak, hari,veer, vidhtuti-putra vaidhruti (multiple)
    saptarishi: jyotirdhAm etc.
    bhagvadavatar = hari , who gave gajendra moksha

    sb 8.2,3,4 = gajendra-moksha ; sb 8.2.4 = prayer by gajendra

    Other past manus of this kapla: vivasvata, chakshusha

    ======================




    Last edited by smaranam; 05 July 2015 at 02:27 PM.

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    Re: Aditi and Ushas in later-Vedic literature?

    Quote Originally Posted by smaranam View Post

    current (7th) manvantar
    current manu : shrAddhadeva , son of vaivasvat

    Other past manus of this kapla: vivasvata, chakshusha

    Namaste Smaranam Ji,

    When we say Vaivasvata manvantare,I was assuming Vaivasvata is the Manu of the current time.I checked the books I had but there was no explanation.But Vaivasvat's son is the present Manu??
    He dances in the golden hall of Chidambaram, Let us worship His rosy anklet girt Feet.

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    Re: Aditi and Ushas in later-Vedic literature?

    Quote Originally Posted by Ram11 View Post
    Namaste Smaranam Ji,

    When we say Vaivasvata manvantare,I was assuming Vaivasvata is the Manu of the current time.I checked the books I had but there was no explanation.But Vaivasvat's son is the present Manu??
    Namaste

    Son of VivasvAn, not son of Vaivasvat, sorry that must have been a typo.

    VivasvAn = sUrya
    Vivasvat = son of VivasvAn.

    Shri KRshNa = VAsudev = son of Vasudev ; RukmiNi = VaidarbhI = Princess/daughter of the kingdom Vidarbha
    GaruD = Vainiteya = son of VanitA ; Arjun = Kaunteya = son of KuntI

    So, this way, ShrAddhadeva = Vivasvat = son of VivasvAn, and
    the manvantar named after the Manu called Vivasvat
    = Vaivasvat = (era (of Vivasvat = era of (son of VivasvAn)))

    (so we have two 'of' s -- first for son of , second for era of that son)

    SB 8.13.1 shri shuka uvAcha :
    manur vivasvatah putrah
    shrAddhadeva iti shrutah:
    saptamo vartamAno yas
    tad-apatyAni me shruNu


    vivasvatah = of VivasvAn (possessive)
    vivasvatah putra = son of VivasvAn
    Last edited by smaranam; 05 July 2015 at 02:55 PM. Reason: vivasvatah = of VivasvAn
    || Shri KRshNArpaNamastu ||

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    Re: Aditi and Ushas in later-Vedic literature?

    Quote Originally Posted by smaranam View Post
    Namaste

    Son of VivasvAn, not son of Vaivasvat, sorry that must have been a typo.

    VivasvAn = sUrya
    Vivasvat = son of VivasvAn.

    Shri KRshNa = VAsudev = son of Vasudev ; RukmiNi = VaidarbhI = Princess/daughter of the kingdom Vidarbha
    GaruD = Vainiteya = son of VanitA ; Arjun = Kaunteya = son of KuntI

    So, this way, ShrAddhadeva = Vivasvat = son of VivasvAn, and
    the manvantar named after the Manu called Vivasvat
    = Vaivasvat = (era (of Vivasvat = era of (son of VivasvAn)))

    (so we have two 'of' s -- first for son of , second for era of that son)

    SB 8.13.1 shri shuka uvAcha :
    manur vivasvatah putrah
    shrAddhadeva iti shrutah:
    saptamo vartamAno yas
    tad-apatyAni me shruNu


    vivasvatah = of VivasvAn (possessive)
    vivasvatah putra = son of VivasvAn
    Namaste Smaranam Ji,

    Thanks for the clarification.
    He dances in the golden hall of Chidambaram, Let us worship His rosy anklet girt Feet.

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