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Thread: A bit more light on yoga

  1. #21
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    Re: A bit more light on yoga

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté


    If you recall, back in post 19 we were reviewing samādhiḥ and its definition found in chapter 3…
    Yet patañjali-muni sets the stage for this in chapter 1:
    ता एव सवीजः समाधिः॥४६
    tā eva savījaḥ samādhiḥ||46

    • eva – indeed , truly , really - some say ‘only’
    • savījaḥ is sa+vījaḥ - sa = meditation, knowledge, and is also a name for viṣṇu or śiva + vījaḥ (vīja) is another way of writing bīja or seed.
    • samādhiḥ - we know as absorption , sometimes too called samāpatti defined as conclusion, coming together, assuming the original form.
      • sama + āpatti = wholeness, fullness, even-ness + occurring, happening. Hence samādhiḥ is sama + āpatti because it occurs or happens in wholeness, fullness of one’s own Self.

    • tā - I left this term to the end… many do not give this simple word much thought. Yet it helps ( me) appreciate how insightful patañjali’s brevity is in using words in the most economical way.
      • Some say tā = ‘they’, others say it means ‘constitute’ and still others suggest ‘these’. I take no issue with this¹. How do others get to these definitions? By the term eta or etā which is defined as ‘variegated color’ ( 2nd derivative of the term). It suggests ‘varying’ or a variety and this applies to the sūtra-s patañjali is talking of prior to this one. You did not miss anything, they were not reviewed as yet.
      • Hence we can see then that a variety of things could be called collectively ‘these’ or ‘they’ – it makes perfect sense. Yet this term eta also means ‘shining, brilliant’; and the the term ‘tā’ also means a jewel, virtue. So, if we collectively look at this, tā means ‘those’ jewels, ‘those’ gems of brilliance ( mentioned in the past sūtra-s).

    What then does the sūtra say?
    Truly, indeed, those gems of meditation (sa) with seed (vījaḥ or writing it as bīja) ~brings about~ samādhiḥ.
    Some say those (gems) bring about or ~support for~ one pointed ( as a seed is condensed) samādhiḥ.

    Two questions must be asked:
    a. What are ‘those’ etā gems (tā)
    b. And what if any does it have to do with what you said yajvan in your last post:
    This then is a good subject that we can turn back onto patañjali’s instruction/darśana for guidance...

    Point a.
    Let’s start with ‘those’ etā, that are previously mentioned by patañjali ( chapter 1, starting with the 17th & 18th sūtra-s and going forward to
    the 46th sūtra just reviewed above). There are two major categories of samādhiḥ:



    • saṃprajñāta – with distinction
    • asaṃprajñāta – without distinction

    To make this simpler think of saṃprajñāta as ‘ with support’ and asaṃprajñāta as ‘without support’. I can get more granular when the conversation demands it, but for now this will be a good entry point.

    But what does this mean ? Saṃprajñāta ‘with support’ are those appoaches ( means, or methods or upāya-s¹) that are engaged in to bring about the calming and balancing ( some say arresting) of the mind… to bring about engrossment or absorption (sama + āpatti ) and a one pointed mind. Yet in this case the one pointedness is on the means, method or upāye that one is engaged in.
    One may use a mantra, a notion to contemplate on, japa or ajapa, one can use the pure intellect, feeling of joy, others can rest in the sense of presence or ‘I’ feeling. But ‘I’ feeling of what? Just ‘I’ and nothing else. Not many are aware of this as it is so intimate and part of one’s being, it is rarely separated out to be considered.

    Point b.
    What if any does this have to do with past posts i.e patañjali’s instruction/darśana for guidance?
    Saṃprajñāta samādhiḥ leads to (grooms) asaṃprajñāta samādhiḥ. Said another way :
    why not, on day one, of practicing saṃprajñāta samādhiḥ spill into asaṃprajñāta samādhiḥ ? For some rare types this could be the case . Yet for most abhyāsa and abhyāśa are instituted… that is, practice (abhyāsa) and reach (abhyāśa); We practice an approach (upāya or method) and many reach (abhyāśa) or extend to expand one’s practice. Yet within this practice past impressions (vasāna-s) continue to surface. Yet here is my point. In posts 19-20 above a ‘cleaning process’ was discussed. This saṃprajñāta samādhiḥ is the cleaning process that patañjali reviews. It is that approach that brings steadiness of mind ( 13th sūtra) and removes kliṣṭa-s ( 5th sūtra).

    More on asaṃprajñāta samādhiḥ in an upcoming post as a bit more information is needed.
    Now to really gain insight, it would be good to outline the 4 sub-categories of saṃprajñāta – with distinction, in the next post.

    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ

    words

    • upāya – to reach one’s aim; an approach, method, technique
    • kliṣṭa - afflictions , distress
    • tā - some too can see this as tān or them; others as tanā - 'uninterrupted succession , one after another' suggesting the past offerings.
    Last edited by yajvan; 29 March 2016 at 10:43 AM.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  2. #22
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    Re: A bit more light on yoga

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté


    Now to really gain insight, it would be good to outline the 4 sub-categories of saṃprajñāta – i.e. with distinction
    The 4 called out in chapter 1, 17th sutra are:
    • vitarka - reasoning , deliberation , consideration; imagination, conjecture, juxtaposition and the like.(yet worthy of note, this term also means a teacher , instructor in divine knowledge; again patañjali’s brilliance in selecting the proper words to apply)
    • vicāra - pondering , deliberation , consideration , reflection; this is slightly different than the 1st term used and needs a bit of explaining , which I will get to in a moment.
    • ānanda – joy, some call bliss
    • asmita – ‘I’ sense , the core of ‘me’.


    The ‘march’ of the mind is from vitarka to asmita. This vitarka is savitarkā or accompanied with reason or thought:

    • savitarkā - accompanied with reason or thought, is that type of samādhiḥ in which one’s practice includes name, form, and knowledge of that which is being used as a vehicle of collecting the mind ( meditation). It could mean one is using contemplation on a particular subject. The point is, it is ONE subject not many. That makes it mediation… see the point? The category of prayer would fit into this entry level approach.

    This aligns nicely to the 42nd sutra of chapter 1 for those that wish to read it.
    • Next is vicāra and we use the term reflection , or reflecting upon. It is one step below the grosser approach of vitarka. ‘Grosser’ here means more engagement with the faculties of the mind – a broader capturing of ideas therefore more differentiated vs. vicāra which is a bit more refined and considered savicārā - that to which consideration is given. Consideration may be given to one thing, one element, say sound. Using a sound/mantra may be in order.One is ‘giving consideration’ i.e. practice to one thing, sound-mantra. I say it differently – one is ‘given in’ to one element. It becomes one’s vehicle to manage and collect the mind. I hope this makes sense.
    • The next one is ānanda – joy. We have transferred from reflection and contemplation to the level of feeling. It is more subtler than thinking and contemplating. It is a ‘feeling’ , on an emotional level. We can use the term ‘joy’ that is verbal, yet the techniques are on the level of feeling this joy as an emotion.
    • Next is even subtler than feeling – it is one the level of ‘I’ sense. Most do not know this condition and only live it. It is that ‘me’ ness that one resides in. If one is very still, silent, innocent yet attentive at the time of waking in the morning one can experience this. To look for it will ‘break’ it. That is why one is innocent ( non-engaging) about it. It too can be experienced just before falling into sleep; and for those with refined awareness this can be experienced at the transition from dream to sleep. It is there. It is that most refined level BEFORE entering Self, Being.
      • If Self is the basement floor, then this ‘I’ feeling is just prior to it. It is below the 1st floor on its way to the basement floor ( if one were in an elevator).


    Why are these samadhi’s called saṃprajñāta ? Because there is some ~object~ , some vehicle albeit gross to subtle that is being engaged in.
    This is now a good time to offer the simplest definition of asaṃprajñāta samādhiḥ. It is that samādhiḥ without a vehicle. This allows one to compare and contrast saṃprajñāta samādhiḥ to asaṃprajñāta samādhiḥ. One has vehicles, the other does not.

    For many the term samādhiḥ suggests a particular condition of experiences… some have a pre-conceived idea of what this samādhiḥ may be. When they hear of different ‘flavors’ of samādhiḥ it can be distracting to confusing. That is why samāpatti as a term works well. Many use the term ‘engrossment’ for samāpatti and that is fine. I’d prefer ‘absorption’ myself, as one is absorbed ( as if nothing else was occurring) in one vehicle or in the case of asaṃprajñāta samādhiḥ, no vehicle at all. This too is sometimes referred to as ‘seedless’ or without a vehicle. The term seedless also has other meanings but to introduce that at this point is only ‘piling on’ new ideas.

    So, if one stands back there is the 2 camps one can characterize:
    1. savitarkā - accompanied with reason or thought
    1.1 savicārā - that to which consideration is given

    2. nirvitarkā - unreflecting
    2.1 nirvicārā - not reflecting or considering

    We can see two groups above… there is the sava (savi) group and the nir or niś group

    • sava - one who sets in motion or impels , an instigator , stimulator
    • niś - to be absorbed in


    The beauty of this knowledge and the wisdom of śeṣa-patañjali is , camp 1 leads one to camp 2. Said differently, camp 1 is the doorway, the entry point to camp 2. And said from an of advitīya kaśmir śaivism point of view the 20th kārikā of the vijñānabhairava tantra bhairava serves us well:

    tatdāsau śivarūpī sayāt śaivī mukhamihocyate ||20
    This says that śakti ( which is another way of saying śaivī) is the entry point (mukha is used, meaning, opening, mouth) to śiva ( the Supreme).
    In laymen's terms, śiva is known through śaivī (śakti).

    In our application of patañjali’s yogadarśana and the present conversation at hand, it is the various vehicles found within the saṃprajñāta list aforementioned that is the entry point to asaṃprajñāta samādhiḥ.

    This asaṃprajñāta samādhiḥ is the central theme of patañjali’s 4th chapter of his yogadarśana called kaivalya pāda. We will look at this in a future post.

    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ
    Last edited by yajvan; 31 March 2016 at 05:12 PM.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  3. #23
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    Re: A bit more light on yoga

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté


    Yajvan, remind me again – why is this samādhiḥ such a big deal or so important?
    We only need to look to śeṣa-patañjali’s 2nd chapter and its 2nd s
    ūtra, it says:

    समाधिभावनार्थः क्लेशतनूकरणार्थश्च॥२
    samādhibhāvanārthaḥ kleśatanūkaraṇārthaśca||2
    infusing (bhāvanā) samādhiḥ is the cause/reason (arthaḥ) for making thin/attenuating (tanūkaraṇa) kleśa-s.

    • Note that the term bhāvanā is defined as infusing; it is also means manifesting, saturating. It is important to note that this saturation does not come from outside one’s self , it is already there, yet not in full bloom. Just as a huge oak tree resides within an acorn, this samādhiḥ is within you.
    • tanūkaraṇa = tanū+ karaṇa
      • karaṇa – doing, causing
      • tanū = tanu = thin, minute, small, and the term attenuate is used meaning to make (something) weaker or less in its effect or force.

    • In this case it is revisiting samādhi ( via one’s practice) that attenuates kleśa-s and śeṣa-patañjali calls out 5:
      • avidyā - ignorance; this is not scholastic ignorance but the inability to differentiate the Self from non-Self termed viveka or discrimination , distinction between Self and non-Self.
      • asmitā , ‘egotism’ or the notion of me-ness ; One identifies ‘me’ as the body and senses; as a limited being.
      • rāga - desires ; that which does not allow the mind to rest or be balanced
      • dveṣa - aversion but to what ? of death; fear of death
      • abhiniveśa – one’s tenacity to cling to mundane existence


    Yet one must ask , where do I engage/begin to infuse (bhāvanā) this samādhiḥ ? It is addressed in patañjali’s 2nd chapter and its 1st sūtra, as it says:
    तपःस्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि क्रियायोगः॥१॥
    tapaḥsvādhyāyeśvarapraṇidhānāni kriyāyogaḥ||1
    (samādhiḥ is inferred here as it occurs in the next verse)

    tapas, svādhyāya, praṇidhāna to the Supreme (īśvara) is kriyāyogaḥ||1
    Then starts the 2nd verse which we just reviewed in the paragraphs above that say via this approach (kriyāyogaḥ) the infusing (bhāvanā) of samādhiḥ occurs
    and the kleśa-s are thinned/broken up/ attenuated. This approach is considered kriyā yoga.

    I wish to only define one term that was offered in this śloka, that of tapas. I have read many definitions and it caused me pause to read some of the variants on this term.
    Tapas is from tapa and is fire, heat, warmth; we know fire purifies. Industrialist use the highest heat available to purify metals and make them pure as the impurities are removed via intense heat. Tapas is that practice that purifies.
    One definition that I am fond of comes from svamī hariharānaṇda of the kāpali maṭha (published in 1911).
    He translates tapas as ’sturdy self-discipline’. I think this is insightful because it supports the notion of the 8 limbs of yoga.
    Most know patañjali’s yogadarśana as the yoga sūtras , yet there is also another name – asṭāṅga yoga-sūtras or the 8 limbs of yoga. It refers to the 30th sūtra of
    chapter 2 ( which we are in with this discussion). It calls out the yama-s and niyama-s which total 8 (or asṭāṅga). Now why is this relevant? These 8 can be considered ’sturdy self-discipline’.

    What I am not fond of and is off-the-mark, is to view tapas as painful austerity. To my dismay I have read this on a few occasions and do not see our śastra-s aligning to this notion. In fact within chapter 2 of the yoga sutras we’re reviewing it says:
    heyaṁ duḥkhamanāgatam||16
    pain (duḥkham) that has yet to come (anāgatam) is to be abandoned/forsaken/avoided (heyam)||16
    Why on earth would any one wish to inflict more pain on themselves? This view is also supported by the bhāgavad gītā, chapter 17, 5th and 6th śloka-s.

    This view on tapas that has been offered ( and as I see it ) is supported by several schools:
    the school of yoga - śeṣa-patañjali’s knowledge
    the school of saṁkhya - svamī hariharānaṇda of the kāpali maṭha is from this darṣana and therefore taken as support
    the school of ved
    ānta ( some say jñāna-kāṇḍa) – of which I use the bhāgavad gītā and kṛṣṇa-jī as my proxy
    the school of kaśmir śaivism where svāmī lakṣman-jū teaches and advocates ahimsa ; non-harm of all things (using common sense ) must also apply to one’s self.


    More to come, yet I lay this notion of tapas to rest.

    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ

    Last edited by yajvan; 31 March 2016 at 07:48 PM.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  4. #24
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    Re: A bit more light on yoga

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté


    From post 23 above:
    समाधिभावनार्थः क्लेशतनूकरणार्थश्च॥२॥
    samādhibhāvanārthaḥ kleśatanūkaraṇārthaśca||2
    infusing (bhāvanā) samādhiḥ is the cause/reason (arthaḥ) for making thin/attenuating (tanūkaraṇa) kleśa-s.
    In this case it is revisiting samādhi ( via one’s practice) that attenuates, reduces, manages kleśa-s ; śeṣa-patañjali calls out 5:

    · avidyā - ignorance; this is not scholastic ignorance but the inability to differentiate the Self from non-Self termed viveka or discrimination ,
    distinction between Self and non-Self.
    · asmitā , ‘egotism’ or the notion of me-ness ; One identifies ‘me’ as the body and senses; as a limited being.
    · rāga - desires ; that which does not allow the mind to rest or be balanced
    · dveṣa - aversion but to what ? of death; fear of death
    · abhiniveśa – one’s tenacity to cling to mundane existence

    We are now told by śeṣa-patañjali:

    सति मूले तद्विपाको जात्यायुर्भोगाः॥१३
    sati mūle tadvipāko jātyāyurbhogāḥ||13

    remains (sati) at the root (mūle), the result (vipākaḥ) is birth (jāti), duration of life (āyus) and experience (bhogāḥ)||13

    What are we being told by śeṣa-patañjali? That as long as the kleśa-s ( 5 in number from the list above) remain (avaśeṣa) or are acquired (sati = sāti = gained, acquired)
    the result is birth, duration-of-life, and experience.

    This is quite interesting (to me)… in the school of yoga birth takes on several meanings other than the birth of the body. It also infers ‘birth’ of thought-after-thought,
    it infers ‘birth’ of arising from a deep sleep in which the mind was at rest yet once again begins its modifications ( the 2nd sūtra of the the yoga-sūtras , 1st chapter)
    again. This continues through one’s span-of-life, and the notion of experience i.e. experiencing , feeling , perception (of pleasure or pain) (bhogāḥ) continues.

    What does this mean ? If one misses the finer point here, it is this: One remains within the field of the 3 guṇa-s thinking they are actually the doer of actions. This is erroneous knowledge and is supported by kṛṣṇa-jī within the bhāgavad gītā¹. This no doubt is one-leg of ignorance. And, this is what we wish to get rid of.
    Now, what is this ignorance in light of the present conversation ? Let’s rely on śeṣa-patañjali’s definition:

    अनित्याशुचिदुःखानात्मसु नित्यशुचिसुखात्मख्यातिरविद्या॥५
    anityāśuciduḥkhānātmasu nityaśucisukhātmakhyātiravidyā||5

    avidyā or ‘not knowledge’- ignorance, is the assertion, opinion (khyātiḥ) viewing that which is perpetual , eternal ‘everlasting’ (nitya) as not everlasting (anitya), pure (śuci) as impure (aśuci), pleasant (sukha) which is pain (duḥkha¹) and Self (ātma) as non-Self (anātmasu)||5

    In a nutshell (for me) it’s holding the opinion of Self as non-Self. That is, the ego as SELF. When one says this is ‘me’ – it is the notion of a limited view of one’s SELF as the ego – and this ego comes about via the intellect standing in for the SELF. It (buddhi) doing the best it can to be SELF to such an extent that people/humans come to think of themselves as this ego-intellect
    bundle of limitations i.e. likes, dislikes, choices that make them feel happy or condem them to sadness. They think ‘I am what I do’ – a baker, mom, dad, farmer, grocer, priest, baseball player, yajvan, sally suzie, billy, johnny, etc.

    But why care ( only for those that care to unfold Self-realization) ? Ignorance/ avidyā is the breeding ground, the field (kṣetra), for the kleśa-s that are presently part-and-parcel of this conversation.

    Recall that ignorance is Not the lack of scholastic information (math, science, physics) but the inability to discern that the intellect (buddhi) as distinct from puruṣa (Self, Being). That is, the intellect engaged in being SELF is really not SELF. At best it is one ray of the SELF and this is why many call it out as self ( note the small ‘s’ used here); It is subordinate to
    SELF at best.

    This is the core of why śeṣa-patañjali offers this knowledge to the aspirant:
    1. self is not SELF
    2. there are methods to come to realize this SELF;
    the practice is called kriyā yoga
    3. note some of the bumps along the way i.e. kleśa-s
    4. they are managed by the infusion of samādhi

    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ


    • duḥkha – properly written duṣkha, based on the rules of grammar
    • bhāgavad gītā 3.27 – actions in every case are performed by the 3 guṇa-s.

    Last edited by yajvan; 06 April 2016 at 12:27 PM. Reason: edits
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  5. #25
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    Re: A bit more light on yoga

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté


    In the second chapter (sādhana pāda) of pātañjalayogasūtra-s (pātañjali’s yoga-sūtras) we find this gem:

    विवेकख्यातिरविप्लवा हानोपायः॥२६
    vivekakhyātiraviplavā hānopāyaḥ||26

    This says, discriminative knowledge/perception (vivekakhyāti) is the means (upāya) for its removal (hāna).
    I left out one term and that is aviplavā which = uninterrupted, uncorrupted ( my word would be ‘continual’).
    Some translate this term to be ‘without confusion or dis-order’. This comes from looking at it this way: a+viplavā = ‘a’ = not + viplavā = distress, tumult, disarray.
    The point offered is the ‘continual’ realization between Self and non-Self is the means for it’s removal (hānopāyaḥ¹).
    And we know from the posts above that we are removing ignorance.

    Pātañjali informs us , with this uninterrupted discrimimative knowledge (vivekakhyātiraviplavā) the native ( or yogi or yoginī i.e. man or woman),7 final insights are revealed… said this way:
    तस्य सप्तधा प्रान्तभूमिः प्रज्ञा॥२७॥
    tasya saptadhā prāntabhūmiḥ prajñā||27

    What are these 7? Let’s review in the next post.

    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ


    1. Note that hānopāyaḥ = hāna +upāyaḥ ( a+u=’o’ guṇa by the rules of grammar)
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  6. #26
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    Re: A bit more light on yoga

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté

    from the previous post...

    तस्य सप्तधा प्रान्तभूमिः प्रज्ञा॥२७॥
    tasya saptadhā prāntabhūmiḥ prajñā||27
    Of it, its (tasya) seven (sapta) placing, holding (dhā) final (prānta) stage (bhūmiḥ)
    discern , distinguish , know about , knowing (prajñā) or ‘insights’.

    This says, its final stage has (or offers) 7-fold knowledge or discernment's.
    (regarding the final stage of vivekakhyātiraviplavā reviewed in post 25 above)

    What are these 7 ‘insights’ ? Some suggest 2 groups are found in the 7:
    Liberation from action – this accounts for 4 of the 7.
    Liberation of the mind – this accounts for 3 of the 7.

    Liberation from action

    • There is nothing more to know – the SELF is the final conclusion; running here-and-there for knowledge outside of one’s SELF is no more.
    • The desire to stay away from anything is no more ( do’s and don’ts of the world); one is at home all the time settled in the SELF.
    • The desire to gain/acquire anything is no more ( some say the desire to gain anything new)
    • The desire to do anything has subsided – that is, the motivation of doing is at rest; One realizes the Ultimate Doer of the World. Anything that is carried out ( say the wise) is from a universal level acting through this realized being here on earth.


    Liberation of the mind
    There are several views on this matter… some just keep things light and say sorrow, fear, and delusion are no more ( are exterminated/exhausted).
    Others say the 3 are:

    • buddhi has fulfilled its function
    • traiguṇa-s are tyajati ( pertaining to the 3 guna-s , they are abandoned )
    • puruṣa resides within itSELF i.e. there is no co-mingling of the triguṇas ( 3 guṇa-s)


    This native (yogi or yoginī , man or woman) can now be called kuśala or competent ( some say proficient). The term kuśala is rooted in ās and means ‘to inhabit or dwell-in, to make one’s abode in’. And this no less is the abode of SELF i.e. ātmāste – he sits in the SELF.

    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  7. #27
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    Re: A bit more light on yoga

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté

    from the previous post...

    This native (yogi or yoginī , man or woman) can now be called kuśala or competent ( some say proficient). The term kuśala is rooted in ās and means ‘to inhabit or dwell-in, to make one’s abode in’. And this no less is the abode of SELF i.e. ātmāste – he sits in the SELF.
    What then occurs for this person 'resting in the SELF' ? One can look at the words offered many places yet I thought this śloka resonated the best ( with me):

    This is from the ṛg veda saṁhita 1.158.6 . I only wish to address the 2nd stanza to keep things simple.

    dīrghatamā māmateyo jujurvān daśame yughe |
    apāmarthaṃ yatīnāṃ brahmā bhavati sārathiḥ ||1.158.6


    • apāmarthaṃ - apa+am+arthaṃ -
      • apa – away, back, off ( not to be confused with ‘āpa’ and the quality of water)
      • am – can be defined as ‘quickly’; it’s 3rd derivation is ‘ to be afflicted’
      • artha has many uses and definitions; in this application I see artha ( by one definition) used as object of the senses
      • Hence apa+am+arthaṃ is to back off quickly (from) , or not afflicted with the objects of the senses.

    • yatīnāṃ

      • yati - 'a striver', the ascetic , devotee , one who has restrained his passions and abandoned the world ( code for one absorbed in SELF)
      • nā – unbroken; knowledge; it also can mean a jewel, pearl. ( suggesting aviplavā which = uninterrupted, uncorrupted from post 25 above)

    • sārathiḥ - a charioteer , driver of a car , coachman ( think of kṛṣṇaḥ in the chariot with arjuna)
    • bhavati – bhava+ti = the state of Being ( rooted in bhū , to be , to become , to be engaged with) + ‘ti’ is a grammar termination that is in the 3rd person (prathama¹) for ‘he’ or ‘she’.
    • brahmā – universal Being or creator


    What then does this śloka say as I see it ?
    He ( or she) that is established in that unbroken/continual Being or SELF (yatīnāṃ bhavati), brahmā is his/her
    sārathiḥ or charioteer.

    Now what does that mean ?

    This person who has moved away from, or is unafflicted by the objects of the senses, established in the SELF has brahmā as his charioteer that now does all actions...it is brahmā that guides and brings him or her here or there. This person, established in the SELF has nothing left to accomplish ( post 26 above); He or she is now in the hands of the Supreme, and lets His work be done. Some would argue ( and rightly so) that there is no '2'. That this person , this identification with a personage of 'me' or quality of 'ego' is no more. The only thing that remains is the Supreme.




    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ

    1. within saṃskṛt grammar there is a 1st person (uttma) , second person some call middle or madhya, and 3rd person (prathama); Some call singular, dual and plural. In the English language usually there is singular and plural, middle or madhya is grouped into the plural condition.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  8. #28
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    Re: A bit more light on yoga

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté


    I thought to add/extend just a few more ideas found in posts 24 to 26…

    Note to the reader that the following is on the cusp of being an advanced subject. If you do not ‘get’ it, no worries;this information is more aligned to one who is practicing these methods and are ( or may) have these experiences. It can be intellectually understood, but better comprehended if the reader in-fact has had the direct personal experiences themselves… that said, let me offer the following from the 3rd chapter of patañjali’s yogadarśana called vibhūti pāda.

    This sutra has great interest to me , as an ‘ahhh-ha!’ piece of knowledge… Let me explain.

    व्युत्थाननिरोधसंस्कारयोरभिभवप्राद र्भावौ निरोधक्षणचित्तान्वयो निरोधपरिणामः॥९
    vyutthānanirodhasaṁskārayorabhibhavaprādurbhāvau nirodhakṣaṇacittānvayo nirodhapariṇāmaḥ||9

    This is talking about defeating or abhibhava (some use the term subjugation meaning to gain control, to conquer and gain the obedience) the latent impressions (saṁskārayoḥ) that rise up (vyutthāna ) as mental fluctuations. This is done by the arrested state of mind nirodha ( restraint , check , control , suppression , destruction). This alteration , transformation (pariṇāmaḥ) of nirodha is also considered considered a mutation or ~form~ of this arrested state (nirodha).

    What is occurring is via this arrested condition ( nirodha) the latent impressions are still there but are ~altered~ for lack of a better term by the ‘time out’ caused by this pariṇāmaḥ ( or transformation ) of nirodha.

    Two impressions are in the works… the past impressions (saṁskārayoḥ) or the term I used above was latent ( dormant and in some cases developed, undeveloped or awaiting to mature) and this impression of nirodha ( or the arrested state). Isn’t interesting that even the arrested state is an impression that is occurring? Two impressions are in the works… one is to arise and be the mind again full of change ( this is the 3 guṇa-s) and the other is to suppress this change and fluctuation (nirodha-pariṇāmaḥ). It is like a metal spring being held down from a weight on top of it. The spring wants to throw off the weight.

    The ahhh-ha! here is that there are two impressions that want to dominate… The fluctuating mind wishes to wander in the forest of the senses, within the world ( this is how the wise explain it, the roaming of the mind in the field of objects); It is being held in check by one’s practice (abhyāsa). In the beginning the metal spring is able to push off the weight of one’s practice without much effort. Yet over time and with yogī yuñjīita satatam or ‘one’s practice is done in continuity’ then the weight (guru – heavy, weighty) of one’s nirodha portion begins to gain position.

    It is no different than purifying gold ( this is bhojarāja-ji’s¹ example) with heat; As gold (considered a noble metal) is commingled with various other alloys as it comes out of the ground, such as lead, it is purified with heat – the dross (waste matter) of lead burns out along with and other the dross, leaving pure gold.

    In this example the heat is the tapas from one’s practice (abhyāsa) that introduces nirodha-pariṇāmaḥ; The lead = impressions (saṁskāra); the gold = pure awareness of samādhi ( this term was reviewed in posts 24-26 above).

    Now do we get any confirmation from śeṣa patañjali¹ that is indeed occurs ? Yes. He offers this in two steps or 2 sūtra-s:

    तस्य प्रशान्तवाहिता संस्कारात्॥१०॥
    tasya praśāntavāhitā saṁskārāt||10

    सर्वार्थतैकाग्रतयोः क्षयोदयौ चित्तस्य समाधिपरिणामः॥११॥
    sarvārthataikāgratayoḥ kṣayodayau cittasya samādhipariṇāmaḥ||11

    this says, ( in a nut shell ) that praśānta-vāhitā or mental peace (śānti) is cultured though that arrested state of mind || 10
    and,
    the rising up or emergence (udaya) of one-pointedness (ekāgratā) & it’s transformation (pariṇāmaḥ) is called samādhi ||11





    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ


    words

    • Bhojarāja was one of several commentators on patañjali’s yogadarśana – his work is called rājamārtāṇḍa-vṛtti; Other commentators are vyāsa, śaṅjara-ji, vivaraṇa-ji, vijñānabhikṣu-ji, etc.
    • patañjali - some say the derivation of his name comes in this manner pata + añjali
      • añjali = open hands placed side by side and slightly hollowed
      • pata – falling
      • The legend says that śeṣa ( the divine serpent) incarnated and fell (pata) into open hands (añjali) of a brahmin (realized being) no less; and this incarnation was none other than patañjali. We can see why he would be called śeṣa-patañjali.

    • ​This process of metal purification is called cupellation
    Last edited by yajvan; 01 June 2016 at 04:30 PM.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  9. #29
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    Re: A bit more light on yoga

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté


    This is a continuation of post 24’s theme… please read that one again as it will bring a better understanding to this post.

    Within the kaṭha upaniṣad (kaṭhopaniṣat¹) we find the following:
    उत्तिष्ठत जाग्रत
    प्राप्य वरान् निबोधत ।
    क्षुरस्य धारा निशिता दुरत्यया
    दुर्गं पथस् तत् कवयो वदन्ति ॥१।३।१४

    uttiṣṭhata jāgrata
    prāpya varān nibodhata |
    kṣurasya dhārā niśitā duratyayā
    durgaṃ pathas tat kavayo vadanti || 1.3.14


    this says, in general…
    arise, awake (uttiṣṭhata jāgrata ) approach (varā¹) the best of masters , do become seated in the Self¹ (ni+bodhata¹);
    Difficult ( durgaṁ¹) to cross ( some say difficult is the path) like a razor's edge¹ (
    niśitā) so the wise (kavi) proclaim or speak (vadanti).

    What can one take from this is immense… yet what I wish to offer alignment to the notion of niśita - sharpened , sharp , and how it applies to
    these two sūtra-s from śeṣa-patañjali’s 2nd & 3rd chapters. First I need to lay them both out:

    dṛgdarśanaśaktyorekātmatevāsmitā|| 2.6

    In this sūtra śeṣa-patañjali informs us that the ego (asmitā) comes about when the Seer or dṛg ( which is another way of saying Puruṣa ) comes about when the 2 powers (śaktyoḥ) are co-mingled or are identified as one (ekātmatā). Said simpler, it is when the Seer and the instruments within the process of seeing & discerning or the cognitive power (darśana¹) are /confused as the same. That is, Puruṣa and buddhi (the intellect) are assumed to be one-and-the same, and this produces the experience of asmitā / ego.
    To be ‘pure’ on this term of asmitā , it means egoism… The notion of ‘me-ness’ or limited being that thinks I am the assembly of this body & mind – the city of 8 ( the 5 senses + the 3 inner ‘organs’ of mind, intellect, ego). The Western experts tell us “egoism should be distinguished from egotism, which means a psychological overvaluation of one’s own importance, or of one’s own activities”.
    Yet no matter how you slice it whether you undervalue or over-value your individuality you are stuck with the misapprehension of the Seer (SELF) being co-mingled with the organs of cognition & discernment.

    Let’s go to the next sūtra , in chapter 3:
    sattvapuruṣayoratyantāsaṅkīrṇayoḥ pratyayāviśeṣo bhogaḥ parārthatvātsvārthasaṁyamātpuruṣajñānam||3.35 ( some books have this as the 36th sūtra)

    In very simple terms this informs and confirms that the intellect ( identified here as sattva, as in buddhisattva) is atyanta ‘beyond the limit’ of asaṅkīrṇayoḥ, not being mixed or filled together. In the West people would use this term atyanta as ‘not even close’. So śeṣa-patañjali is reminding us that the intellect and the Seer (Puruṣa/Self) are in fact ‘no way’ the same, no even close.
    In fact he tells us in this verse that the intellect (buddhi or sattva) exists for the sake of Puruṣa alone, and ( by the way) Puruṣa exists for its own sake ( It is Self-sufficient, completely independent).

    ...but yajvan, why then did you offer this sūtra when it was established with the 6th sūtra above that buddhi and Puruṣa are different ?
    Well in this sūtra śeṣa-patañjali says if you can ‘see’ or experience or cognize the difference between the two , you will then gain knowledge of Puruṣa itself. Now ‘gain knowledge’ is not used here in this verse – it is said one attains Self (svārtha) knowledge (jñānam) of Puruṣa (puruṣa). It is this ability to discriminate (viveka) between the two that one comes to ‘know’ Puruṣa.

    Now the question... what does this have to do with the razor's edge niśita ? We will address this in the next post.

    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ


    words

    • kaṭha – a pupil or follower of or follower of kaṭha; the term is also defined as distress. This notion of distress within the kaṭha upaniṣad (kaṭhopaniṣat¹) can be assigned to nacakitas the son of vājaśravā.
    • kaṭha + upaniṣad = kaṭhopaniṣat. This is done via the rules saṁdhi (sandhi)
    • varā - choose, 'select' ; also means precious , best , most excellent, best , most excellent or eminent among
    • Self – this term always gives one a brain cramp. I am using it as non-personal all-inclusive Being or pure Awareness, without boundaries ( time, shape, size, origin or birth). This is clearly distinct from ‘self’ small ‘s’ which suggests a constrained, limited experiencer of time, shape, size, with origins, that comes and goes).
    • durgaṁ or durga - difficult of access or approach , impassable , unattainable
    • razor's edge - niśita - sharpened , sharp ; also means steel or iron
    • ni+bodha
      • ni as an indeclinable = within, into ;
      • this term ‘ni’ also expresses kṣepa (throwing, casting tossing), dāna (the act of giving, and giving up) , uparama (stopping, arresting) , āśraya (seated, annexed) , mokṣa (re-recognition of SELF,Being)
      • bodha = becoming or being awake , consciousness
      • Hence ni+bodha = going ‘within’ going ‘into’ + being awake. The ‘ni’ term suggests mokṣa or liberation; ‘waking up’ to the re-recognition of SELF. Seated (āśraya) in the SELF.

    • darśana - seeing , observing , looking , noticing , observation , perception ; apprehension , judgement , discernment , understanding , intellect
    Last edited by yajvan; 07 June 2016 at 12:26 PM.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  10. #30
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    Re: A bit more light on yoga

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté

    Now the question... what does this have to do with the razor's edge niśita ?
    Think how sharp a razor’s edge is... very clean, pointed, with the ability to cut with ease. It is the notion ( from 3.35 sūtra reviewed in the last post) that one’s ability to discriminate (viveka) is that sharp, that pure, that one pointed , that it will cognize the difference between buddhi and Puruṣa (Self, Being, pure awareness).

    It like a seed being able to discriminate between its actual core seed (endosperm) and the layers that cover it ( the bran). Not only the gross 'bran' cover but the nucellar tissue cover that is shown in the picture below.





    That is , our discrimination becomes razor sharp. Over time and practice one is getting to the notion of distinguishing between Self and non-Self. One hears ‘you are not the body’ , not the arm, the legs the head, etc.' from others or from books. Sure we get that ( I hope). But then one needs to go further in ( the march inward – pratiprasava¹) and discriminate that the essential 'you' is also not the mind, ego and intellect.
    It is this final stop between intellect (buddhi or sattva as it is identified in the sūtra-s) and Puruṣa (Self, Being, pure awareness) that one needs this razor’s edge of sharp cognition.This is why ‘purity of awareness’ is such a big deal. It is the tool for discriminating.

    There is a ‘practice’ that śeṣa-patañjali offers in the 3rd chapter that is called out:

    क्षणतत्क्रमयोः संयमाद्विवेकजं ज्ञानम्॥५२
    kṣaṇatatkramayoḥ saṁyamādvivekajaṁ jñānam||52

    this says,
    with the practice of saṁyamāt ( which I have not reviewed here as yet ) on a moment (kṣaṇa) and its sequence, its progression kramayoḥ discrimination (viveka) knowledge (jñānam) is born (jaṁ) or developed/gained/honed.

    What is a moment? We are talking time-frames. A kṣaṇa is a moment, also called the ‘twinkling of the eye’ or nimeṣa , a wink of an eye. A moment is a minimal amount of time. So, a sequence of moments make up a thing we call time. The key here is moment 1 does not occur during moment 2. They are discrete and different. To be able to distinguish between moment 1 and 2 yields discriminating power. See the point?
    Even if you say it is now ( moment 1), the next moment (2) is now + some very small portion of time (kṣaṇa or nimeṣa) that brings you to moment 2. Cognizing that slight difference is what is being discussed here.

    What occurs ? Indistinguishable differences become distinguishable. In a gross example you see identical twins, the yogin ( even the miti yogin – the one practicing yet full elevation has not occurred as yet) would discern the difference; so says the 54th sutra found in chapter 3:
    jātilakṣaṇadeśairanyatānavacchedāttulyayostataḥ pratipattiḥ||53

    in general this says ,
    there is distinguishable knowledge (pratipattiḥ - some say clear perception) between objects looking alike (tulyayoḥ); the differences (anyatā) are comparatively (tulya) indiscernible (anavacchedāt).
    Now does this say more? Yes, it talks of class; say a species of bird. Bird A verses bird B of the same species; or something with the same markings ( a stroke of a pen), or by position ( something being closer or further away). The discernment/differences will be apparent to the yogin.

    This carried to the highest level the yogin will differentiate between the intellect and pure Being (Puruṣa). This is the razor’s edge being honed... Final discriminating knowledge has no sequence (akramam). It is considered tāraka ( liberating) and comprehensive of all (sarva) things (viṣayam) i.e. it is intuitive knowledge (jñānam). This is pointed out here:
    tārakaṁ sarvaviṣayaṁ sarvathāviṣayamakramaṁ ceti vivekajaṁ jñānam||54

    And what is the fruit of this?

    सत्त्वपुरुषयोः शुद्धिसाम्ये कैवल्यमिति॥५५

    sattvapuruṣayoḥ śuddhisāmye kaivalyamiti||55

    when there is equality of purity (śuddhisāmye) between the intellect ( here called sattva) and Puruṣa (puruṣayoḥ) thus ( iti) kaivalyam or absolute independence (code for mokṣa) results. One now lives the SELF as their Reality.

    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ


    1. pratiprasava – ‘counter-order’ or marching inward; return to the orginal state or condition
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

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