Namaste to all

In Chapter 15 of Bhagavad Gita sri Krishna has imparted to Arjune the most secret doctrine.

Verse 16 says “In this world there are two kinds of purushas – perishable (kshara) and imperishable (Akshara). All beings (Sarvani Bhutani) are perishable and the changeless one (kutastho’kshara) is said to be imperishable”.

Verse 17 says “There is the supreme person (uttamh purusha) distinct from these called supreme self (paramatma) . It is HE who as the imperishable Lord (avyaya Iswara) pervading the three worlds sustains all”.

In Verse 18 sri Krishna says “ Since I transcend the perishable (ksharam) and excel the imperishable (aksharad), I am known in the Vedas and in this world as the Supreme person (Purushottamah)

In these above verses, three personalities have been mentioned – kshara (perishable), akshara (imperishable) and distinct from these two there is Purushottama (supreme). This world part of which is sentient and part of which is not, heading towards an end rises in Him like a bubble and subsidies in Him too. It is created by His Para and Apara prakriti and His para prakriti in the form of beings has been sustaining it ( 7/4-6). This is the perishable aspect.

The imperishable aspect consists in His eternal, absolute, immutable, changeless, attributeless, and unthinkable self.

As supreme person he is both with and without attributes, creator, preserver and destroyer, partaker of rites and sacrifices, goal, sustainer, master, witness, abode, refuge and friend of all beings ( 7/1).

For the Brahman of the protagonists of Maya doctrine is silent, imperishable, and passive. The purushas of the Samkhya School is also like that. So according to both the schools, it is only by renouncing action that deliverance can be attained. Further, there is no room for bhakti in this deliverance. The supreme of the Gita, however is calm, undisturbed, attributeless, infinite, abiding as a soul in all beings. At the same time, HE promotes and sustains attributes, is inspirer of prakriti or karma, partaker of rites and sacrifices, Lord of lords.

Swami Nikhilananda of Ram Krishna Math and Mission, one of the leading Advaita schools, has explained “ the perishable” as which comprises all changing forms. And “ the imperishable” as the Maya shakti or power of the Lord which deludes all. It is the germ of all perishable beings and manifests itself through various forms of illusion.

Swamaji again says the word “ imperishable” may mean the conscious enjoyer in everyone who remains unchanged through all the experiences of man.

Swamiji again says that the words “ perishable” and “ imperishable” may also mean the physical body and the conscious creature. The latter is under the control of the supreme soul.

Swamiji describes “ the perishable” as the illusory tree of the world described at the beginning of the chapter and “ the imperishable which constitutes the seed of that tree. It is found that most of the advaita schools avoide to explain these verses of Gita. From above it is clear that how advaita schools are confused with these verses. In the Gita “ akshara and kutastho’ is defined as nirgun nirakar Brahman in Verse 3/8, verse 21/8, verse 18/11, 37/11 and verse 3/12. Sri Krishna says “I excel the imperishable ( aksharad api chottamah ). The word ‘api’is used only to establish that the personality of purushottama is superior to akshara Brahman which is regarded as paratattva otherwise it is needless to state that the personality of purushottam is superior to Maya or prakriti. ‘api ‘is not necessary since everybody knows that. Later in verse 20 it is said that this is the most secret doctrine. The concept of purushottam or parabrahman excels the maya or prakriti can not be regarded as the most secret doctrine and also what is the meaning of “worships ME with his whole being” in advaita Brahmantattva. Actually the concept of brahmanvada of Upanishad was already there and Gita has added nishkam karma and bhakti to that and established Bhagavad dharma where purushottama has replaced Brahman of Upanishad. Narayaniya chapter of Mahabharata has mentioned details of this purushottam tattva and bhagavad dharma. In Upanishad there is no mention of avataravada and bhakti and bhagavad dharma is charactersided by these two features. This is the secret doctrine.

Therefore Gita does not support the advaitic view that there is nothing but the nondual supreme reality that is without any qualities or characteristics. In the Gita nirgun nirakar Brahman is not the supreme reality but it is the purushottam who is both sagun and nirgun sakar and nirakar. This truth reaches its finality when sri Krishna says in verse 27/14 “ I am the abode of Brahman, the immortal and immutable”