Re: jñānaṃ & jñeyaṃ
Continuing on śrī bhagavān's reply to arjuna ...
10 though 12
indriyārtheṣu vairāgyam anahaṃkāra eva ca |
janma mṛtyu jarā vyādhi duḥkha doṣā nudarśanam || 13.9
indriyārtheṣu = indriya + ārtha + iṣu
- indriya – the senses; this ‘indriya’ term can also be used for the number 5 ( as the 5 senses); it also means power , force, as the ability for the senses to pull you here and there.
- ārtheṣu = artha + iṣu ārtha = ‘having to do with’, or ‘relating to’ + iṣu = an arrow; the number 5; some also say ‘a ray of light’; ārtheṣu = having to do with the 5 (indriya-s)
- vairāgyam – this typically is called dispassion, yet is defined differently. It is aversion to, indifference towards, ‘growing pale’
Hence this notion of indriyārtheṣu vairāgyam is: relating to the senses (indriya) one grows pale, indifferent to them – to the objects of the senses.
Svāmī lakṣman-jū’s words are ‘one does not give-in to them’.
There are four possible roads regarding indriyārtheṣu vairāgyam
The first is one is established in the SELF ( let’s call turyātīta¹); then this vairāgya is a natural/no-effort occurrence and will have the experience ‘ I do not act at all’ – this will be called out momentarily.
The second one is that person via his/her practice naturally finds they are not inebriated (intoxicated) by objects. The objects are there , but one grows pale of them, they lack interest in them. There even can be the behavior of ‘ oh I want that , oh need to get that , go and capture that’ , then a moment later ‘naaaah ’. They are not driven.
The third is where one makes an effort not to be captured by objects. It is a mindful effort. It is meager at times; it may cause some strain, and often than not the senses win.
The fourth is that of the paśujana ( worldly) , without abhyāsa (practice) of any sort; not caring, nor even knowing of this entanglement of the senses. In this case it is śakti having sufficient fun with this person. Now one would expect some chastisement from me ( or others) saying look at this brute! This is not the case; this person too has yet to feel the pinch that comes with this constant stimulation. It will occur. They are atṛpta ( unsatisfied).
Consistency of kṛṣṇa-jī on this matter
One should be mindful that the senses are doing their job. Kṛṣṇa-jī is clear on this (8th & 9th śloka of chapter 5):
naiva kiṃcitkaromīti yukto manyeta tattvavit |
indriyāṇīndriyārtheṣu vartanta iti dhārayan ||9
This says overall:
The yuktaḥ (the one possessed or residing with the Self/Supreme/Divine) knows the truth and maintains ‘ I do not act at all ’ (naiva kiṃcitkaromīti) even when seeing,
hearing, touching, smelling eating, walking, sleeping, breathing, speaking, letting go, seizing or grasping, even opening and closing the eyes.
The yuktaḥ ( the person herein being described) simply holds that the senses act among the objects of sense ( indriyāṇīndriyārtheṣu vartanta iti dhārayan ).
This state, this condition is un-contrived; it is on every level of the senses… that is why one cannot pretend (dambha = fraud , from the post one list above).
A look at what the kaṭha upaniṣad (kaṭhopaniṣad) says on this matter…
If one looks at any artistic rendering of kṛṣṇa-jī talking to arjuna, it is usually within a chariot.
This symbol (lakṣaṇā) is called out in the kaṭhopaniṣad section 1.3.3 to 1.3.8 and says the following:
Know the Self as the lord of the chariot and the body as the chariot . Know the intellect as the charioteer and the mind as the reins.
The senses are said to be the horses and sense-objects ( things of the world) is the path they tread on. The Self united with the senses and mind say the wise is the enjoyer.
With no vijñā́na (~understanding~) and the mind not constantly held firm, one’s senses go unrestrained like vicious horses for the charioteer.
With vijñā́na (~understanding~) and mind constantly held firm one’s senses remain restrained like good (well-mannered) horses for the charioteer.
One of no vijñā́na, unmindful and always impure, reaches not the goal but attains saṁsāra (the circuit of mundane existence, repeat births);
one of vijñā́na , mindful and always pure reaches the goal, where from is born no more.
The key is well-trained horses, not beaten. The beaten only gives you a horse that wants to escape. And what brings about this training?
It is vijñā́na and defined as ‘distinguishing or discerning , understanding , comprehending , recognizing , intelligence , knowledge’. It is the subject matter of this whole string,
jñānaṃ & jñeyaṃ .
anahaṃkāra = an+ahaṃkāra
- ‘an’ =is a prefix for ‘a’ meaning ‘not’ + ahaṃkāra = conception of one's individuality , egotism, the experience of ‘me-ness’, of the self ( small ‘s’ suggesting limits and boundaries, differentiated awareness of the world and ‘me’ at the center).
- This anahaṃkāra in simple terms is without ego but is weighed to the notion of a false ego, a false impression on who you are.
This can be viewed on 2 levels
The mundane level : ‘ oh, I am so repected and smart, every one recognizes me as this and so do I ’ ; ‘I a so elevated, I am so over-qualified for this ___ (fill in the blank), why do you waste my time ?’.
It is a level of ego-centricity that even you believe it!
A higher level: being without the ego in actuality ; this goes back to post 1 above and infers the first offer on the list of 18. That of amānitva - humility. Humility is not thinking
less of yourself, but less about your self. In this case, perfect humility, the ego is not even there, and one is in great comfort being as small as a grain of sand.
This aligns to the aṣṭasiddhi daivata or the 8 divine siddhi-s (perfections) that are referred to by Utpaladevācārya and his work called the śivastortāvalī. It is aṇimā :
- aṇimā - is aṇi + mā ; aṇi = the point of a needle + mā = measure. This is humility that is fully blossomed. One is humble, one is nirahaṃkāra or without pride;
‘Me-ness’ is brought down to a small point of a needle, not to exist. If there is any residual ‘me’ remaining , it is the slightest, minute, small (aṇi) leftovers or remains of ignorance called leśāvidya¹.
The 12th article of knowledge...
janma mṛtyu jarā vyādhi duḥkha doṣānudarśanam || 13.9
We will address the second line of the 9th śloka in the next post.
- turyātīta is defined as beyond the 4th; it simply means when pure awareness is established as an everyday experience. The 4th is the transcendent, the 4th level of awareness; for many this is experienced only during meditation. Then over time this 4th level becomes a daily experience even when the eyes are open, hence the notion of ‘beyond’ the 4th, suggesting one does not need to have their eyes closed to be established in it.
- The following wisdom is inspired by Utpaladevācārya work called the śivastortāvalī. Utpaladevācārya falls within the lineage of the trika darśana school of thought, aligned to kaśmir śaivism. This alignment to mahāyoga is via the notion that one’s own Self, Being, is the re-recognition ( pratyabhijñā) of one’s Self - Being (sattā), comes by grace (anugraha).
- leśa + avidya gives leśāvidya
- leśa = a small part or portion , particle , atom , little bit or slight trace
- avidya = ignorance
Last edited by yajvan; 25 November 2015 at 06:48 PM.
because you are identical with śiva