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Thread: Some of pāṇini's rules applied

  1. #11
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    Re: Some of pāṇini's rules applied

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté & hello,


    I wrote in post 9 above,
    from the aṣṭāvakra gītā 4.3
    Note the aṣṭāvakra sounds in this word.
    Within saṁskṛt and its written form (devanāgarī) there are three ‘s’ sounds that are used. We find them in other languages such as english but within saṃskṛt they are more defined ( as I have found) of when they’re to be used.

    The s sounds (s, ś , ṣ ) are called sibilants; the official name in saṁskṛt is ūṣman ( or heated). They belong to a group of consonants called spṛṣṭa meaning ‘stops’. What is stopped ? The air flow when these sounds are formed.

    Now there are ~light~ stops (īṣat- spṛṣṭa) and hard stops , and there are ½ stops (arda-spṛṣṭa) and this is where the s sounds (s, ś , ṣ ) fall in. What would be a ~hard~ stop? A ‘ta’ sound or ‘ka’ sound or ‘ga’ sound. When talking of groups (varga) the first 25 consonants fall into the spṛṣṭa ‘stops’ category. People usually call out the 1st sound of each sound to suggest the ones they’re talking about e.g. ‘oh, you know, ka, ca, ṭa, ta, pa sounds’. Each of these sounds are produced by the 5 points of articulation within the throat, roof of the mouth, lips, teeth, etc. The graphic for this can be found in post 9 above.

    Back to the ’s’ sounds
    These sounds as mentioned are ½ stops (arda-spṛṣṭa) and are called heated (ūṣman). But what do they sound like?
    I have over the years tried to get these sounds correct. It takes some time because of their slight difference:

    • s - this ‘s’ most of us get with no issue. It is like the ‘s’ in son, or sun, or sweet. We ca hear the ‘a’ influence (sa)
    • ś - like in sure or shine. We can pick up the ‘h’ influence.
    • ṣ - this ‘s’ is a bit different. It is the sound that is in efficient. One must listen carefully on the dental and lip use to get to this sound. here is a bit more dental-tongue used than ‘lips pursed’ use that is found in the ‘sh’ sound. Most just revert back to the ‘sh’ sound found in the ‘ś’ use but that would be incorrect. Some books call out the example of ‘shun’ as the proper sound, but for me that gets too much ‘h’ involved in the sound; I found the sample sound of efficient being ideal ( for me). Well you ask , why split hairs on this? Because by definition saṁskṛt is defined as ‘highly polished’ or completely formed. Allowing ‘ṣ’ to sound like ‘ś’ or ‘s’ would not be considered ‘fully cooked’ , some say ‘fully dressed’.


    Back to this aṣṭāvakra term
    We know it means bent in 8¹ ways but that is not the point of this post. It is a grammar rule I wish to point out.

    • First rule: An ‘s’ changes to an ‘ṣ’ if its preceded by a vowel except an ‘a’ or ‘ā’ . We look at this term aṣṭāvakra and say wait a minute, an ‘a’ comes before the this ‘ṣ’ why then did it not stay as an ‘s’ ? That is because of another rule ( go figure), that is:
    • Second rule: when an ‘s’ is followed by a ‘t’, or ‘th’, or an ‘n’ then the ‘s’ transforms to ‘ṣ’


    These rules are called internal saṁdhi ( also written sandhi when certain rules are applied). It is internal because it is within the word. Contrast this to saṁdhi that appears at the end of word one and the beginning of word two , where two sounds come together ( such as śrī+mat bhaga+vat +gita found in post 7 above).

    Here’s an example of the 1st rule: bhīma - the ‘i’ that comes before the ‘s’ is a vowel and the rule can be applied. Same in this term tvidameteāṁ. The ‘s’ is preceded by the vowel ‘e’ and is therefore trasformed to . I am using a verse from the bhāgavad gītā (1.10) talking of bhīma as commander and his military force - this term tvidameteāṁ is used there ( but + this + of theirs) which offers multiple rules we can leave for another time.

    Now, there are many-many more rules/conditions I left out so we should not cloud the waters. But a reasonable question to ask: is there a condition when an ‘s’ changed to an ‘ś’. Sure. consider namas śivāya. Most of us are use to seeing this like this: namaḥ śivāya ( post 1 and 2 hints to this, and also the rules of visarga (ḥ) apply); yet if I wish to put these two terms together namas+śivāya the rules of saṁdhi say s+ś = śś and therefore namaśśivāya is also proper form.
    In fact the rule tells us if this ‘s’ is combined with any other palatal ( the palate area of the mouth called tālavya), this ‘s’ becomes ś. So, what are those tālavya sounds ? They are c, ch, ja, ñ. This then forms śc, śch, śja, śñ. So, śivas + ca ( which is śiva + and) would be śivaśca. As mentioned before the rules of visarga (ḥ) can also apply and this could be written as śivaḥ ca.

    There are so many rules that can be used... the place that I study many of these are within the śrīmad bhāgavad gītā. It is perfectly written and the rules are applied for ones use and examination; that is where the study comes in and
    am no more than the student.

    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ

    terms
    8 – written in devanāgarī looks like this ८ ( an upside down 7 ?) ; yet a 7 looks like a 6 (७) a ‘4’ looks like this ४ ( almost an 8, no?); 6’s look like backwards 3’s (६) & 3’s look like 3’s (३) . How does one all keep it straight!
    Last edited by yajvan; 22 December 2016 at 04:44 PM.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  2. #12
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    Re: Some of pāṇini's rules applied

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté & hello,


    I wrote,

    • First rule: An ‘s’ changes to an ‘ṣ’ if its preceded by a vowel except an ‘a’ or ‘ā’ . We look at this term aṣṭāvakra and say wait a minute, an ‘a’ comes before the this ‘ṣ’ why then did it not stay as an ‘s’ ? That is because of another rule ( go figure), that is:
    • Second rule: when an ‘s’ is followed by a ‘t’, or ‘th’, or an ‘n’ then the ‘s’ transforms to ‘ṣ’
    Here is a line from the śrīmad bhāgavad gītā ( 1.21) and the same rule applies for 's' becoming an .

    हृषीकेशं तदा वाक्यमिदमाह महीपते।

    hṛṣīkeśaṁ tadā vākyamidamāha mahīpate |

    Yet for many they say, 'hey! where is the vowel ? I don't see it.' Well, within saṁskṛt (ri) is considered a vowel as is ṝ (rī ), ḷ (lri) and some too call out ḹ (lṝ):


    • ṛ as in rythem
    • rī as in marine
    • ḷ (lri) as in reverlry
    • ḹ (lṝ) as in reverlrī ( just a long ī at the end) - its rare to see this ḹ but every now and then it shows up.


    Yet note that 'ra' is not considered a pure vowel but within a semi-vowel or anta
    ḥstha ( meaning in-between) group. There is ya, ra, la, and va that are considered antaḥstha and are considered part consonant and part vowel. These sounds are found regularly in most if not all saṁskṛt writings.

    Here's something I do not 'get'
    So, let me mention something I do not understand when I apply the rules ( any help is welcomed)...
    I look at the term madhus
    ūdanaḥ¹, another name for kṛṣṇaḥ-jī . Note the vowel preceding the 's' , yet the 's' is not transformed into .
    I have yet to find the rule that applies.

    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ

    1.
    madhusūdanaḥ = the destroyer/slayer of madhu.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  3. #13
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    Re: Some of pāṇini's rules applied

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté & hello,


    This verse has a few interesting rules that are applied:
    न चैतद्विद्मः कतरन्नो गरीयो यद्वा जयेम यदि वा नो जयेयुः।
    यानेव हत्वा न जिजीविषामस्तेऽवस्थिताः प्रमुखे धार्तराष्ट्राः॥६॥

    na caitadvidmaḥ kataranno garīyo yadvā jayema yadi vā no jayeyuḥ|
    yāneva hatvā na jijīviṣāmaste'vasthitāḥ pramukhe dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ||6

    Arjuna is speaking and says,
    we do not know which is better for us: that we should conquer them or they conquer us. The sons of dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ stand face-to-face with us. If we kill them we should not desire to live ourselves.

    This term caitadvidmaḥ = ca + etad+ vid+maḥ = and + in the manner (or thus) + we know (vid is in plural format by adding ‘mas’ = maḥ when properly declined). The term caitadvidmaḥ is changed to ‘we do not know’ due to the very first term of the sentence - ‘na’.

    We see the terms are combined ( due to the rules of saṁdhi) ca + etad now becomes caitad. The saṁdhi rule says 2 vowels cannot be placed together. If this in fact occurs then they are transformed or ~combined~ or strengthened to form their guṇa or vritti form.
    When one thinks of guṇa usually they are thinking 3 guṇa-s (or triguṇya). Yet this term (guṇa) also means strength or power or might. Within grammar and this application it means the ~power~ of adding an ‘a’ or ‘ā’ to simple vowels. This forms its guṇa. If it is repeated more ~strength~ is added and its vṛtti form is created. This term (vṛtti) has many uses from ‘form’ to ‘state or condition’. So, with simple vowels a new form or condition is created by adding ~strength~ on top of its guṇa form.

    A simple example of guṇa formation & vṛtti formation would be with an ‘a’ : The guṇa of ‘a’ is ‘a’. That may give some a ‘brain cramp’ but just go with it for now. I can explain later.

    Let’s say two ‘a’s come together, it will now be combined to its vṛtti formation. Here’s the rule: when two 'a's come together long (dīrgha) ‘ā’ or short (hrasva) ‘a’ doesn’t matter, we end up with a sound ā. So we can write the rule like this:
    · a + a = ā
    · a + ā = ā
    · ā + a = ā
    · ā + ā = ā

    This long ā is the vṛtti form of ‘a’.

    Another rule offers the following to create the guṇa form; doesn’t matter if this 'a' is long ā (dīrgha) or short a (hrasva).
    The rule is when this ‘a’ or ‘ā’ is added to a simple vowel its guṇa form is created. Said differently,
    the simple vowel (say i) is strengthened by adding ‘a’ to it to form its guṇa ‘e’.
    · a ( long or short) + i ( i can be long ī or short i) = e
    · a + u ( u can be long or short) =o
    · a + r ( r in saṃskṛtā is a vowel, and can be long or short ) = ar
    · a + l ( l in saṃskṛtā is a vowel and can be long or short) = al

    Here’s a quick simple example: chāndogya + upaniṣad = a+u = o. This is written as one word chāndogyopaniṣad; properly written is chāndogyopaniṣat
    So, the march of vowels goes from their simple form -> to guṇa form -> to vṛtti form. All are used. It is when vowel-sounds comingle with each other that the guṇa form & to vṛtti form comes into use. Why ? It allows the speaker to flow from one sound to the other with the mouth-tongue being in the best postion to form the sounds in an effective and melodious manner.

    Back to the word at hand
    I am writing all this stuff to get the reader to our final goal; this is, how caitadvidmaḥ is formed coming from its components ca + etad + vid + maḥ . Well, now this is simple to answer because you have been introduced to guṇa formation & vṛtti formation.
    When the grammarian adds ca + etad , a + e = ai andcaitadvidmaḥ is formed.

    To the astute reader who may have read some of the previous posts on saṁdhi construction methods may ask, why doesn’t ‘etad’ get changed to ‘etat’ ? ;~ usually~ ‘d’ is changed to ‘t’ when it is the last sound of a word being inserted into a sentence. Well, the rule also says if this ‘t’ is followed by a soft sound, then this ‘t’ is converted to the 1st soft sound within its class or family of sounds. Since ‘t’ is in the danta ( dental) class of sounds, and the next sound in the term is ‘vi’ that should is a soft semi vowel. We then are obligated to change this ‘t’ to the 1st soft sound in the dental class which is ‘d’. Hence caitadvidmaḥ.

    So, we know this – how to create a vritti form when these sounds are found in appostion (~ side-by-side~):

    • a or ā + e = ai i.e. the guṇa ‘e’ + a or ā results in the vritti form ‘ai’
    • a or ā + o = au i.e. the guṇa ‘o’ + a or ā results in the vritti form ‘au’
    • a or ā +ar = ār i.e. the guṇa ‘ar’ + a or ā results in the vritti form ‘ār’
    • a or ā +al = āl i.e. the guṇa ‘al’ + a or ā results in the vritti form ‘āl’


    This ‘ai’ sound formation is used often and found many places. It is useful to de-construct a word and finds its components that can be looked up and defined, so a person knows what a term means. In verse 2.19 of the śrīmad bhāgavad gītā the term yaścainaṁ is used. Note the ‘ai’ use. It tells me that it was formed by a or ā + e = ai . Hence I can then assume the term is a compound word of yaśca+enaṁ.
    I also note that when an ‘s’ comes in contact with a ‘ca’ sound it then is transformed to an ‘ś’. Hence I would look at this word as yas + ca + enam. Note that I do not write the ‘m’ as ṁ simply because I have reversed engineered the word and ‘undo’ the rule that made the ‘m’ an ṁ. The rule says when and ‘m’ comes at the end of the word and is followed by a consonant then it is transformed to ṁ ( called anusvāra). Now I can define what this compound word is offering:

    • yas – to exert or strive after ; some use this as ‘the one who’
    • ca – and
    • enam – this , that (it is used when something is referred to which has already been mentioned in a sentence, or the existing sentence) example: Bob was that man who swam in the ocean.


    The verse reads like this:
    he who understands that (enam) to be the slayer and he who takes that (enam) to be the slain, both fail to perceive the truth. He neither slays nor is slain.
    What is being referred to (enam)? It is Self, that was offered in previous verses ( starting with 2.17)

    more rules in future posts...

    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  4. #14
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    Re: Some of pāṇini's rules applied

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté & hello,


    I offered the following from a post above:

    Another rule offers the following to create the guṇa form; doesn’t matter if this 'a' is long ā (dīrgha) or short a (hrasva).
    The rule is when this ‘a’ or ‘ā’ is added to a simple vowel its guṇa form is created. Said differently,
    the simple vowel (say i) is strengthened by adding ‘a’ to it to form its guṇa ‘e’.
    · a ( long or short) + i ( i can be long ī or short i) = e
    · a + u ( u can be long or short) =o
    · a + r ( r in saṃskṛtā is a vowel, and can be long or short ) = ar
    · a + l ( l in saṃskṛtā is a vowel and can be long or short) = al
    Let's apply this guṇa form to a well known sound.

    Who has not heard of om̐ ? Rare indeed is that person within sanātana dharma that is unfamiliar with this sound form.
    Some see it as om̐ or even as yet how does it come to us as a u m ?

    Note how it is used in the māṇḍūkya upaniṣad (māṇḍūkyopaniṣat) and the very first verse:
    हरिः ओम्
    ओमित्येतदक्षरमिदं सर्वं तस्योपव्याख्यानं भूतं भवद्भविष्यदिति सर्वमोङ्कार एव |
    यच्चान्यत्त्रिकालातीतं तदप्योङ्कार एव ॥ १ ॥

    hariḥ om |
    omityetadakṣaramidaṃ sarvaṃ tasyopavyākhyānaṁ bhūtaṁ bhavadbhaviṣyaditi sarvamoṅkāra eva |
    yaccānyattrikālātītaṁ tadapyoṅkāra eva || 1

    hariḥ om |
    om, the word, is all this. a clear explanation of it ( will follow). All that is past, present and future is verily om |
    that which is beyond the triple conception of time, is also truly om ||

    Then in the following verses this upaniṣad goes on to explain each pāda1 of om as a u m. How does this occur ? Why not om as written in the verse?
    The simple answer is this... I can reverse engineer an 'o'. By reversing the
    guṇa form of 'o' I get 'a' + 'u' . As mentioned in several posts above a+u = o. Hence this is what this upaniṣad is doing. This rule is even applied in the form of māṇḍūkya upaniṣad; when I add māṇḍūkya + upaniṣad we get māṇḍūkyopaniṣat. I talked about the 't' at the end in other posts above, so you can look up stream to see the rule applied.

    Another question one might have is within the verse om is written as 'oṅ' in sarvamoṅkāra and in tadapyoṅkāra. This is another rule of transformation that is covered within
    saṃskṛtām. We will look at that one at another time.

    And, what of this ? This symbol is none other than a long ū which is pronounced like ( but not perfectly like) a long ō ( row, bow, toe, snow, etc.); examples for this sound is closer to pool, rude.
    And the symbol on top ? That is the 'code' for nasalization (ṁ) of this (ū) called candrabindu; that is, this nasalization completes the final sound and 'caps off' the sound form (ū). Hence called praṇava , oṁkāra by some, auṁkāra by others is a symbol and and a sound-form at the same time.


    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ

    1. In this upaniṣad it called out 4 pāda or pada... 4 measures, four sections, four parts. But this is just for our understanding. As the last 4th is turīya and it is partless, whole, full and , in fact, expresses itself in as the other 3.
    Last edited by yajvan; 31 January 2017 at 12:11 PM.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  5. #15
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    Re: Some of pāṇini's rules applied

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté & hello,


    A rule or two from the
    śrīmadbhāgavadgītāḥ. Chapter 2,

    धस्वधर्ममपि चावेक्ष्य न विकम्पितुमर्हसि।
    धर्म्याद्धि युद्धाच्छ्रेयोऽन्यत्क्षत्रियस्य न विद्यते॥३१

    svadharmamapi cāvekṣya na vikampitumarhasi|
    dharmyāddhi yuddhācchreyo'nyatkṣatriyasya na vidyate||31

    the says,
    even if you consider your own dharma you should not waiver for there
    is nothing better (śreyaḥ) for a kṣatriya (warrior) than battle in accord with dharma

    Some interesting rules of saṁdhi are offered here: yuddhācchreyo'nyatkṣatriyasya , when inspected, has to be taken apart to see its components. Then we can re-assemble it and show the rules that were applied: yuddhācchreyo'nyatkṣatriyasya = yuddhāt + śreyaḥ + anyat + kṣatriyasya
    1. When ś ( which is in the family class called ūṣmán i.e glow, heat) is preceded by ‘t’, then it is ~optionally~ changed to ‘ch’.
    Now the term looks like this: yuddhātchreyaḥ. But, then another rule applies. When ‘t+ch’ occurs, the resulting sound = ‘cch’ and now we have the following” yuddhācchreyaḥ
    • As an aside this ‘t’ when it encounters a ‘c’ , ‘ch’, ‘j’ or ‘jh’ then the newly produced sound is ‘cc’ , ‘cch’ ( which was just used in the example ‘t+ch’), ‘jj’ or ‘jjh’ .
      • One caveat that is offered... I mentioned this rule is optionally applied. I have found ( so far) that the rule is ~usually~ applied.
      • The other finer point is the rule just applied says that the next sound following this ‘cch’ should be a vowel, semivowel a nasal, or an ‘h’ for this rule to be optionally applied.

    If we look to the example yuddhācchreyaḥ , the cch is followed by an ‘r’. Well if you speak English ‘r’ is not a vowel, yet
    in saṁskṛt this ‘r’ sound as ṛ (ऋ) and ṝ (ॠ)1 are considered vowels; the standard ‘r’ ( ) is a semi-vowel. Hence ‘r’ meets the requirement and the rule can be applied.

    2. The next set of rules for śreya + anyat will be reviewed in the next post.


    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ

    1. ṛ (ऋ) as in rhythm and ṝ (ॠ) as in marine.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  6. #16
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    Re: Some of pāṇini's rules applied

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté & hello,

    This post is outside of pāṇini's rules of grammar - I have not found it there (yet).
    I go to the
    1st verse of the ṛg veda.

    agnisūkta ( the hymn to agniḥ )
    madhucchandā vaiśvāmitraḥ | agniḥ | gāyatrī| ( this calls out the ṛṣi or seer of the hymn, the devaḥ, and the meter)
    prathamaṃ maṇḍalam| ( this tells the reader that it is the 1st book or maṇḍala of the ṛg veda)


    अ॒ग्निमी॑ळे पु॒रोहि॑तं य॒ज्ञस्य॑ दे॒वमृ॒त्विज॑म् ।
    होता॑रं रत्न॒धात॑मम् ॥१

    agnimīḻe purohitaṃ yajñasya devamṛtvijam |
    hotāraṃ ratnadhātamam ||1

    Looking at this 1st term agnim + īḻe
    agnim is agniḥ. Now agnim is used in this form to let us know it is the direct object in question of this sūkta’s line 1; that is why it is spelled in this manner, agnim.

    In the English language the direct object is given the term ‘accusative’; Within saṃskṛt grammar (vyākaraṇa1) it is called karman or what the agent seeks most to attain (the object). Who is an agent? It is the subject or kartṛ – the one who makes or does or acts or effects, considered a doer.
    Other ~official~ names for these two are the following:

    • prathamā ( subject) = first or foremost; the first or nominative case when we look at the 8 cases ( some call 7) a term may take on.
    • dvitīyā (object) = 2nd ; the 2nd case , the accusative or its terminations when we look at the 8 cases a term may take on.

    If I were praising agniḥ as in O’agniḥ it would be written as ‘agne’ which is one of the 8 cases, called vocative case in the English language and sambodhana2 in saṃskṛt; it means an interjection like Oh! or Hey!

    Now in this verse, we know agniḥ (agnim) is the object. But of what? In this verse, it is of one’s adoration.

    All of the above sets the stage to talk of one rule...
    agnim+īḻe
    Note the following:

    • īḷā √ īḍ = to praise (√ = ‘is rooted in’)
      • iḍ ( with a short i) = the flow of speech , the stream of sacred words and worship as it is rooted √ in ‘iṣ’ – which is to send out, stream out, flow out.

    • iḍa = agni = who is to be addressed with prayers , or invoked with the stream of flow of praise, and iḍas = objects of devotion.


    Now the rule in use
    When the sound form ḍa ( or even ḍha) has vowels on both sides of it then ḍa becomes ḷa and ḍha becomes ḷha
    Hence agnim+īḻe started off as agnim+īḍe . As far as I can tell this only occurs in vedic saṃskṛt and not
    classical ( or pāṇinian
    3) saṃskṛt.

    Now why does this rule occur ? ( of which I have been searching for some time now) was explained by an example:
    When something white has crimson on both sides of it the white changes in color slightly. Like that when ḍa has a vowel on both sides, it changes to ḷa, hence īḍe becomes īḻe.
    What does the hymn say ?
    agnim+īḻe = agniḥ I adore. Hence the 1st verse of the ṛg veda reads,
    agniḥ I adore, placed in front, the devaḥ of yajña, the ṛtvij4 |
    he (agniḥ) is the summoning priest (hotṛ5) and activates ratna (anything valuable or best of its kind),
    bestowing the most desired (dhātamam) || 1

    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ

    terms
    1. vyākaraṇa – grammar; grammatical correctness , polished or accurate language
    2. sambodhana – awakening, arousing ( like wake up!); this is the 8th case.
    3. pāṇini's aṣṭādhyāyī or 8 chapters of grammar rules.
    4. ṛtvij - sacrificing at the proper time , sacrificing regularly; when a ‘k’ is added (ṛtvijk) then it is a priest.
    5. hotṛ √ hu - an offerer of an oblation or burnt-offering (with fire).

    • There are 4 ṛtvijk-s at the yajña: hotṛ , adhvaryu , brahman , and udgātṛ ; each of them has three companions sometimes called puruṣa-s , so that the total number is sixteen. Why 16? It is considered wholeness, fullness.


    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  7. #17
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    Re: Some of pāṇini's rules applied

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté & hello,


    Awareness takes the name sadā sarvadṛk. To be a bit more specific this term is used for invariable (pure) awareness and that would be turīya (the 4th).
    With this term sadā sarvadṛk there is a grammatical rule that is worth mentioning. Note sarvadṛk. It is seen as sarva + dṛk. It means whole, entire, all + to see, cause to see, or to see by divine intuition, knowing. Yet the definition of ‘dṛk’ comes from ‘dṛś’ of which you will find in a saṃskṛt dictionary.

    It is by specific grammar rules applied that the term dṛś specifically the ś , appears at the end of final word or word that will be inserted in a sentence must be changed to a ‘k’ or a ‘ṭ’. The ~rule~ is, only vowels (except ṛ, ṝ, ḷ), unaspirated hard consonants (ka, ṭa,etc.) except ca, nasals (ṇ, ṅ, ṁ m̐) except ñ, visarga (ḥ) and the semi vowel la ( or l) can appear at the end of a word or final word in a sentence. Anything other than these qualified endings must be changed/swapped out based on specific rules.

    So, in the example given dṛś becomes dṛk. If this ending was an ṣ then it converts to ṭ. Why is this important? Well, you cannot look up the term if you cannot find the proper spelling of it.

    We now know term in question is sarva + dṛś and have its definition. And, regarding the first term sadā, we can get a clear view of what invariable (pure) awareness, the 4th, called sadā sarvadṛk is:

    • sadā ( note it ends in a vowel) = continual, always, perpetual
    • sarva = whole, entire, all
    • dṛk-> dṛś = to see, cause to see, or to see by divine intuition, knowing.


    This pure/invariable awareness is whole, without break or pause, knowing-divine intuition; some would suggest it to be continual/whole and all seeing.


    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  8. #18
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    Re: Some of pāṇini's rules applied

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté & hello,


    I wrote in another folder and post : http://hindudharmaforums.com/showthr...a-s-name/page3

    gaṇapati or gaṇapatiṁ -Lord of the multitudes. gaṇa is a flock , troop , multitude , number , tribe , series , class + pati is Lord, master,. Yet this pati is also 'husband' when uncompounded. It also can be used as 'wife' when taken as female gender use. Hence this word can be used for those devotees of gaṇeśa i.e. the group/tribe (gaṇa) that are husband or wife (pati) of gaṇeśa.
    I wanted to add some additional information that applies within grammar.

    If we look at the term gaṇa we know it means ‘flock troop, multitude’... it also means ‘class’. Well, within saṃskṛtam and its grammar of verbal roots (dhātu-s) we too find a multitude, 10 classes, or daśagaṇaḥ. It is from these verbal roots that all things ( seen and unseen) can be called out, identified, contrived, idealized, etc. Consider it like the periodic table of elements that calls out the very foundation of that which exists in material form.. Yet for daśagaṇaḥ it also has the ~element~ to call out non-material things , and that will be found in the 1st term of the 1st gaṇa, which I will call out in a moment. Hence the total field of all classes is presided over by gaṇapatiṁ, ganeṣa-ji lord of all gaṇa-s. What are these ?

    dhātupāṭha
    The sum of all these roots = 1,943. Yet some of them are repeated a few times and the entry goes to 2056 dhātu-s. Let me list out the 10 classes (daśagaṇaḥ). Each one is known by its first name of that class.
    1. bhvādi - the way to look at this is the class of roots (dhātu-s) that begin (ādi) with bhū. Some will say shouldn’t that say begins with ‘bhv’ per the term offered? For those interested I will explain in foot note 1.
    Now this ‘bhū’ is in its rightful place as the 1st entry because the root is defined as ‘be, to become’. It is existence itself and all that ‘becomes’. Within pāṇini-ji’s work2, the dhātupāṭha, from where all this resides, he gives a brief definition for each class (gaṇaḥ) entry ( as mentioned there’s 10 or daśagaṇaḥ & 1943 entries). For this first entry, bhū, he offers this meaning: sattāyām . For me only , I look at this term as sattā + āyām
    • sattā – existence, being ( note too that satta – without the long ā means seated)
    • āyām - to be reduced to , become anything
    • sattā + āyām = everything can be reduced to, seated in being; or, all existence to become anything, is seated in being.

    Hence bhū = sattā + āyām.
    Can anyone inform me of one thing that does not have this quality? Hence, we do not even need to go further than this one term to say that ganeṣa-ji lords over all and any-thing existing or not existing.

    Now there is a bit more to this ‘bhū’ and will take it up in the next post, and begin to identify the other 9 classes of roots at that time.

    इतिशिवं

    iti śivaṁ


    1. bhvādi = bhū + ādi ; ū + ā = vā , bhv+ādi = bhvādi. When a ‘ū’ ( or u) is followed by a dissimilar vowel , in this case an ‘ā’ then a ‘v’ is substituted for the ‘ū’. This applies to words ending in i-ī, ū-u, ṛ-ṝ, and ḷ. What then are substituted for these vowels? ( In the same order) y, v, r, and l.
    So, let’s say I combine yogi + aṇga; we have the condition of 2 dis-similar vowels coming together. We apply the rule and substitute ‘y’ for the letter ‘i’ and then combine the terms to get yogyaṇga.
    • We know that bhū = being, becoming we can take this notion and create a word ‘ he is’. This is done by a rule that is applied for this class of words ( 1c class as this group is called out). It says : guṇa of the dhātu (root) + ‘a’ + ending . That is the formula that is applied. So, I will use it for bhū.
    • The guṇa of bhū is bho + a + ending ( I will use the ‘ti’ ending which means ‘he\she or it').
      • bho + a + ti.


    • Now I have to apply another rule – when ‘o’ and ‘a’ are in apposition ( next to each other) the ‘o’ becomes ‘av’:
      • bhav + a + ti = bhavati which is ‘ he is’ or ‘she is’.
      • This modification or formula gua of the dhātu (root) + ‘a’ is called vikaraṇa, defined as ‘ producing change’.
      • That is exactly what happens to the root bhū. The term bhū is changed into a stem or limb (aṇga).
      • Then endings or terminations ( called tiṅ ) are added.
        • bhavati which is ‘ he is’ or ‘she is’
        • bhavasi which is ‘ you are’
        • bhavāmi which is ‘I am’


    2. pāṇini's grammar consists of four parts:
    śivasūtra: phonology (notations for phonemes specified in 14 lines)
    • aṣṭadhyāyī: morphology (construction rules for complexes)
    • dhātupāṭha: list of roots (classes of verbal roots)
    • gaṇapāṭha: lists classes of primitive nominal stems

    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  9. #19
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    Re: Some of pāṇini's rules applied

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté & hello,


    within verbal roots (dhātu-s) we too find a multitude, 10 classes, or daśagaṇaḥ

    You would think that if you have 10 classes or groups, there might be an even distribution of the 1,943 roots across these 10 classes; yet this is not the case. In the 1c class, that is, the first one called bhvādi and reviewed in the last post, 52% of all the roots (dhātu-s) reside here. As I list out the classes below I will add the % of roots that reside within each class ( from 1c to 10c) as an fyi.

    I said in the last post that there is just a bit more to say about the 1st entry ‘bhū’ found in the 1c class. I mentioned this: sattā + āyām = everything can be reduced to, seated in being; or, all existence to become anything, is seated in being. When this notion is applied to the world it appears as active (kriyā) and stationary (dravya). The term dravya also means a tree and hence ‘stationary’. It also means a substance , thing , object.

    We now can see how this applies.
    • kriyā is active & dynamic and appears in grammar as verbs1.
      • from kriyā (active) -> bhāva (dynamic) -> ākhyāta (verbs)

    • dravya being a substance, thing or object appears as nouns ( person , place or thing by definition).
      • from dravya (stationary) -> satva (balanced/static) -> nāma (nouns)


    That is why each word in saṃskṛtam and its grammar is modeled after bhū-> sattāyām -> kriyā & dravya; bhū is at its root (dhātu).

    The 10 classes or daśagaṇaḥ

    • bhvādi - be, becoming Some say to be, to exist. 52% of the dhātu-s reside in this class (1class)
    • adādi - to eat, to be nourished. 3.7% of the dhātu-s reside in this class (2c)
    • hu or juhavādi2 – to offer, to perform yajña. 1.3% of the dhātu-s reside in this class (3c)
    • divādi – to play, entertain. 7.3% of the dhātu-s reside in this class (4c)
    • su or svādi – to press or extract . 1.8% of the dhātu-s reside in this class (5c)
    • tudādi – to strike . 8.2% of the dhātu-s reside in this class (6c)
    • rudādi – to support or block. 1.3% of the dhātu-s reside in this class (7c)
    • tanādi – to proliferate, stretch, or ~mushroom~ . 0.6% of the dhātu-s reside in this class (8c)
    • krī or krayādi – to engage, trade . 3.1% of the dhātu-s reside in this class (9c)
    • curādi – to steal, covet. 21.1% of the dhātu-s reside in this class (10c)


    I could have called out the 10 listed above by the pratyāhāra ( or put together, bringing together) method. This approach is to name the 1st and last member of a group e.g. bhvādi-curādigaṇa. It is like saying ‘from A to Z’ , which implies all the letters in-between.
    One could even call out the 1st dhātu (bhū) and the last dhātu (tutha) or 1,943rd entry roots, and consider those the ‘bookends’ for the pratyāhāra list.
    Now why mention this? Because the first term bhū is being and becoming, and the last term tutha, which is another name for brahman , the term means cover, spread, praise. Hence this is the field of gaṇapatiṁ -Lord of the multitudes, that is all encompassing, from bhū to tutha.

    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ


    1. verbs (ākhyāta) - a word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, and forming the main part of a sentence, such as hear, become, happen.
    2. juhavādi – this is formed by the rule for 3c roots before adding ‘ādi’ or ‘beginning with’.
    It says: abhyāsa + guṇa of root + ending
    · abhyāsa = reduplication and ‘what is prefixed’, hence the first syllable is reduplicated-> hu+hu
    · yet there is a specific rule ( as you would guess) that says in this type of construction the 1st ‘h’ is turned into a ‘j’
    Now we have juhu. Then;
    · the guṇa of juhu = juho ( the guṇa of ‘u’ is ‘o’)
    · last, juho + ādi . When ‘o’ + ‘ā’ combine, the result is ‘av’ . The result is juh+av+ ādi = juhavādi
    · Here’s a few examples :
    • juho+mi - (no additional rule for ‘o’ + ‘m’ is needed) juhomi = I offer
    • juho+si - (no additional rule for ‘o’ + ‘s’ is needed) = juhosi = you offer
    • juho+ti - (no additional rule for ‘o’ + ‘t’ is needed ) = juhoti = he offers


    • We also could do ‘you both offer’ , and we all offer’ by changing the ending for dual and plural applications.· I have seen this term juhavādi written as juhotyādi of which I do not comprehend the rules that were applied.
    Last edited by yajvan; 31 March 2017 at 09:58 AM.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  10. #20
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    Re: Some of pāṇini's rules applied

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté & hello,


    this post is a continuation in thought from here, but from a gramatical point of view: http://hindudharmaforums.com/showthr...266#post130266

    naiva kiñcitkaromīti yukto manyeta tattvavit|
    paśyañcchṛṇvanspṛśañjighrannaśnaṅgacchansvapanśvasan||8

    pralapanvisṛjangṛhṇannunmiṣannimiṣannapi|
    indriyāṇīndriyārtheṣu vartanta iti dhārayan||9

    (the) one who is in union (yuktaḥ) with the divine and who knows the truth (tattvavit) will maintain1 , ‘I do not act at all’ ;
    · in seeing (paśyan),
    · hearing (śṛṇvan),
    · touching (spṛśan),
    · smelling (jighran),
    · eating (aśnan),
    · walking2 moving (gacchan),
    · sleeping (svapan),
    · breathing (śvasan),
    · speaking (pralapan),
    · letting go (visṛjan),
    · seizing (gṛhṇan),
    · even opening the eyes and closing the eyes (unmiṣan & nimiṣan).
    he holds simply that the senses (indriyāṇi) are occupied (vartante) or act among the objects (artheṣu) of sense indriya-s...iti || 8-9

    There’s many grammatical gems found in these 2 śloka-s (
    ślokau) . I thought to point out just a few.

    Within grammar , or at least pāṇini-ji’s grammar which has been the subject at hand , there’s 5 groupings, some say units, that gives rise to saṃskṛtam and therefore how it is also written in devanāgarī script:

    • varṇa – sound
    • akṣara – syllables ( even at the bīja or seed level)
    • śabda – words
    • pada – word construction that includes construction and rule application i.e. modifications; the term here means a portion of a verse , portion of a line or stanza
    • vākya – sentences , and therefore proper grammatical rules for verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, past, present, future tenses, etc.


    Once at the word level, pada ( word construction) application of rules begin. The rules insure proper construction, flow, and sounds that are melodious and work with each other i.e. complimentary sounds. To get these sounds in proper order some changes may occur to the words/sounds. This could be deletions ( lopa), modifications (vikāra) and additions (āgama).

    The method that is employed is saṁdhi (or sandhi) rules. The rules work upon vowels (svara) consonants (hala or vyñjana), aspiration of breath (visarga), and ṣatva (palatalization, tongue placement for sound forms). Hence saṁdhi = junction, combination, connection or union between sounds where lopa, vikāra, and āgama may occur.

    Let's begin
    Note the terms of seeing, hearing, smelling, touching, etc in the verse above. One should see a pattern or form for each term ( notice they all end in ‘an’). The words have been placed in the vartamāne kṛdanta form. That is, in the present participle formation. This form suggests or expresses that an action is still in progress. The first word is ‘seeing’ (paśyan). Notice it is not suggesting a passed action ( had seen) or a future action (will see) , but seeing in general. I will not show how these are made, yet like most words they come from a root and stem with the proper endings and case applied.
    Why is this of any importance? It suggests that seeing and hearing continues for that person in union (yuktaḥ) with the divine.

    Vyākaraṇa ( explanation , or literally, ‘taken apart’)
    Let's look to the second line of verse 8 and the 1st verse of 9 where
    seeing, hearing, etc. is called out. The technique that is used in the verses is various forms of saṁdhi applied to the terms ( usually not visible to most1) as they are combined and merged into one pada. So, one needs to reverse engineer the sentence to its components, then re-assemble to see and all out the rules being applied

    paśyañcchṛṇvanspṛśañjighrannaśnaṅgacchansvapanśvasan||8
    paśyan + śṛṇvan + spṛśan + jighran + aśnan + gacchan + svapan + śvasan ||8

    pralapanvisṛjangṛhṇannunmiṣannimiṣannapi|
    pralapan + visṛjan +gṛhṇan + unmiṣan + nimiṣan + napi |

    We will take a look at the saṁdhi rules that were applied in the next post.

    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ

    1. most here means mleccha prayoga = ‘a foreigner (mleccha) ~coming to a meal~ (prayoga)’; one ignorant in the voice of saṃskṛtam. Now, what’s the deal with prayoga ? Well the notion is coming to a meal and not being able to converse with others fluent in saṃskṛt. I could have used another definition of prayoga ( utterance, position, usual form) yet thought the one provided was most interesting and apropos. Note this includes me as I am just the śiṣya (pupil) being taught (śiṣṭa).

    Last edited by yajvan; 01 April 2017 at 08:55 PM.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

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