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Thread: Some of pāṇini's rules applied

  1. #11
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    Re: Some of pāṇini's rules applied

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté & hello,


    I wrote in post 9 above,
    from the aṣṭāvakra gītā 4.3
    Note the aṣṭāvakra sounds in this word.
    Within saṁskṛt and its written form (devanāgarī) there are three ‘s’ sounds that are used. We find them in other languages such as english but within saṃskṛt they are more defined ( as I have found) of when they’re to be used.

    The s sounds (s, ś , ṣ ) are called sibilants; the official name in saṁskṛt is ūṣman ( or heated). They belong to a group of consonants called spṛṣṭa meaning ‘stops’. What is stopped ? The air flow when these sounds are formed.

    Now there are ~light~ stops (īṣat- spṛṣṭa) and hard stops , and there are ½ stops (arda-spṛṣṭa) and this is where the s sounds (s, ś , ṣ ) fall in. What would be a ~hard~ stop? A ‘ta’ sound or ‘ka’ sound or ‘ga’ sound. When talking of groups (varga) the first 25 consonants fall into the spṛṣṭa ‘stops’ category. People usually call out the 1st sound of each sound to suggest the ones they’re talking about e.g. ‘oh, you know, ka, ca, ṭa, ta, pa sounds’. Each of these sounds are produced by the 5 points of articulation within the throat, roof of the mouth, lips, teeth, etc. The graphic for this can be found in post 9 above.

    Back to the ’s’ sounds
    These sounds as mentioned are ½ stops (arda-spṛṣṭa) and are called heated (ūṣman). But what do they sound like?
    I have over the years tried to get these sounds correct. It takes some time because of their slight difference:

    • s - this ‘s’ most of us get with no issue. It is like the ‘s’ in son, or sun, or sweet. We ca hear the ‘a’ influence (sa)
    • ś - like in sure or shine. We can pick up the ‘h’ influence.
    • ṣ - this ‘s’ is a bit different. It is the sound that is in efficient. One must listen carefully on the dental and lip use to get to this sound. here is a bit more dental-tongue used than ‘lips pursed’ use that is found in the ‘sh’ sound. Most just revert back to the ‘sh’ sound found in the ‘ś’ use but that would be incorrect. Some books call out the example of ‘shun’ as the proper sound, but for me that gets too much ‘h’ involved in the sound; I found the sample sound of efficient being ideal ( for me). Well you ask , why split hairs on this? Because by definition saṁskṛt is defined as ‘highly polished’ or completely formed. Allowing ‘ṣ’ to sound like ‘ś’ or ‘s’ would not be considered ‘fully cooked’ , some say ‘fully dressed’.


    Back to this aṣṭāvakra term
    We know it means bent in 8¹ ways but that is not the point of this post. It is a grammar rule I wish to point out.

    • First rule: An ‘s’ changes to an ‘ṣ’ if its preceded by a vowel except an ‘a’ or ‘ā’ . We look at this term aṣṭāvakra and say wait a minute, an ‘a’ comes before the this ‘ṣ’ why then did it not stay as an ‘s’ ? That is because of another rule ( go figure), that is:
    • Second rule: when an ‘s’ is followed by a ‘t’, or ‘th’, or an ‘n’ then the ‘s’ transforms to ‘ṣ’


    These rules are called internal saṁdhi ( also written sandhi when certain rules are applied). It is internal because it is within the word. Contrast this to saṁdhi that appears at the end of word one and the beginning of word two , where two sounds come together ( such as śrī+mat bhaga+vat +gita found in post 7 above).

    Here’s an example of the 1st rule: bhīma - the ‘i’ that comes before the ‘s’ is a vowel and the rule can be applied. Same in this term tvidameteāṁ. The ‘s’ is preceded by the vowel ‘e’ and is therefore trasformed to . I am using a verse from the bhāgavad gītā (1.10) talking of bhīma as commander and his military force - this term tvidameteāṁ is used there ( but + this + of theirs) which offers multiple rules we can leave for another time.

    Now, there are many-many more rules/conditions I left out so we should not cloud the waters. But a reasonable question to ask: is there a condition when an ‘s’ changed to an ‘ś’. Sure. consider namas śivāya. Most of us are use to seeing this like this: namaḥ śivāya ( post 1 and 2 hints to this, and also the rules of visarga (ḥ) apply); yet if I wish to put these two terms together namas+śivāya the rules of saṁdhi say s+ś = śś and therefore namaśśivāya is also proper form.
    In fact the rule tells us if this ‘s’ is combined with any other palatal ( the palate area of the mouth called tālavya), this ‘s’ becomes ś. So, what are those tālavya sounds ? They are c, ch, ja, ñ. This then forms śc, śch, śja, śñ. So, śivas + ca ( which is śiva + and) would be śivaśca. As mentioned before the rules of visarga (ḥ) can also apply and this could be written as śivaḥ ca.

    There are so many rules that can be used... the place that I study many of these are within the śrīmad bhāgavad gītā. It is perfectly written and the rules are applied for ones use and examination; that is where the study comes in and
    am no more than the student.

    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ

    terms
    8 – written in devanāgarī looks like this ८ ( an upside down 7 ?) ; yet a 7 looks like a 6 (७) a ‘4’ looks like this ४ ( almost an 8, no?); 6’s look like backwards 3’s (६) & 3’s look like 3’s (३) . How does one all keep it straight!
    Last edited by yajvan; 22 December 2016 at 05:44 PM.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  2. #12
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    Re: Some of pāṇini's rules applied

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté & hello,


    I wrote,

    • First rule: An ‘s’ changes to an ‘ṣ’ if its preceded by a vowel except an ‘a’ or ‘ā’ . We look at this term aṣṭāvakra and say wait a minute, an ‘a’ comes before the this ‘ṣ’ why then did it not stay as an ‘s’ ? That is because of another rule ( go figure), that is:
    • Second rule: when an ‘s’ is followed by a ‘t’, or ‘th’, or an ‘n’ then the ‘s’ transforms to ‘ṣ’
    Here is a line from the śrīmad bhāgavad gītā ( 1.21) and the same rule applies for 's' becoming an .

    हृषीकेशं तदा वाक्यमिदमाह महीपते।

    hṛṣīkeśaṁ tadā vākyamidamāha mahīpate |

    Yet for many they say, 'hey! where is the vowel ? I don't see it.' Well, within saṁskṛt (ri) is considered a vowel as is ṝ (rī ), ḷ (lri) and some too call out ḹ (lṝ):


    • ṛ as in rythem
    • rī as in marine
    • ḷ (lri) as in reverlry
    • ḹ (lṝ) as in reverlrī ( just a long ī at the end) - its rare to see this ḹ but every now and then it shows up.


    Yet note that 'ra' is not considered a pure vowel but within a semi-vowel or anta
    ḥstha ( meaning in-between) group. There is ya, ra, la, and va that are considered antaḥstha and are considered part consonant and part vowel. These sounds are found regularly in most if not all saṁskṛt writings.

    Here's something I do not 'get'
    So, let me mention something I do not understand when I apply the rules ( any help is welcomed)...
    I look at the term madhus
    ūdanaḥ¹, another name for kṛṣṇaḥ-jī . Note the vowel preceding the 's' , yet the 's' is not transformed into .
    I have yet to find the rule that applies.

    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ

    1.
    madhusūdanaḥ = the destroyer/slayer of madhu.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  3. #13
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    Re: Some of pāṇini's rules applied

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté & hello,


    This verse has a few interesting rules that are applied:
    न चैतद्विद्मः कतरन्नो गरीयो यद्वा जयेम यदि वा नो जयेयुः।
    यानेव हत्वा न जिजीविषामस्तेऽवस्थिताः प्रमुखे धार्तराष्ट्राः॥६॥

    na caitadvidmaḥ kataranno garīyo yadvā jayema yadi vā no jayeyuḥ|
    yāneva hatvā na jijīviṣāmaste'vasthitāḥ pramukhe dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ||6

    Arjuna is speaking and says,
    we do not know which is better for us: that we should conquer them or they conquer us. The sons of dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ stand face-to-face with us. If we kill them we should not desire to live ourselves.

    This term caitadvidmaḥ = ca + etad+ vid+maḥ = and + in the manner (or thus) + we know (vid is in plural format by adding ‘mas’ = maḥ when properly declined). The term caitadvidmaḥ is changed to ‘we do not know’ due to the very first term of the sentence - ‘na’.

    We see the terms are combined ( due to the rules of saṁdhi) ca + etad now becomes caitad. The saṁdhi rule says 2 vowels cannot be placed together. If this in fact occurs then they are transformed or ~combined~ or strengthened to form their guṇa or vritti form.
    When one thinks of guṇa usually they are thinking 3 guṇa-s (or triguṇya). Yet this term (guṇa) also means strength or power or might. Within grammar and this application it means the ~power~ of adding an ‘a’ or ‘ā’ to simple vowels. This forms its guṇa. If it is repeated more ~strength~ is added and its vṛtti form is created. This term (vṛtti) has many uses from ‘form’ to ‘state or condition’. So, with simple vowels a new form or condition is created by adding ~strength~ on top of its guṇa form.

    A simple example of guṇa formation & vṛtti formation would be with an ‘a’ : The guṇa of ‘a’ is ‘a’. That may give some a ‘brain cramp’ but just go with it for now. I can explain later.

    Let’s say two ‘a’s come together, it will now be combined to its vṛtti formation. Here’s the rule: when two 'a's come together long (dīrgha) ‘ā’ or short (hrasva) ‘a’ doesn’t matter, we end up with a sound ā. So we can write the rule like this:
    · a + a = ā
    · a + ā = ā
    · ā + a = ā
    · ā + ā = ā

    This long ā is the vṛtti form of ‘a’.

    Another rule offers the following to create the guṇa form; doesn’t matter if this 'a' is long ā (dīrgha) or short a (hrasva).
    The rule is when this ‘a’ or ‘ā’ is added to a simple vowel its guṇa form is created. Said differently,
    the simple vowel (say i) is strengthened by adding ‘a’ to it to form its guṇa ‘e’.
    · a ( long or short) + i ( i can be long ī or short i) = e
    · a + u ( u can be long or short) =o
    · a + r ( r in saṃskṛtā is a vowel, and can be long or short ) = ar
    · a + l ( l in saṃskṛtā is a vowel and can be long or short) = al

    Here’s a quick simple example: chāndogya + upaniṣad = a+u = o. This is written as one word chāndogyopaniṣad; properly written is chāndogyopaniṣat
    So, the march of vowels goes from their simple form -> to guṇa form -> to vṛtti form. All are used. It is when vowel-sounds comingle with each other that the guṇa form & to vṛtti form comes into use. Why ? It allows the speaker to flow from one sound to the other with the mouth-tongue being in the best postion to form the sounds in an effective and melodious manner.

    Back to the word at hand
    I am writing all this stuff to get the reader to our final goal; this is, how caitadvidmaḥ is formed coming from its components ca + etad + vid + maḥ . Well, now this is simple to answer because you have been introduced to guṇa formation & vṛtti formation.
    When the grammarian adds ca + etad , a + e = ai andcaitadvidmaḥ is formed.

    To the astute reader who may have read some of the previous posts on saṁdhi construction methods may ask, why doesn’t ‘etad’ get changed to ‘etat’ ? ;~ usually~ ‘d’ is changed to ‘t’ when it is the last sound of a word being inserted into a sentence. Well, the rule also says if this ‘t’ is followed by a soft sound, then this ‘t’ is converted to the 1st soft sound within its class or family of sounds. Since ‘t’ is in the danta ( dental) class of sounds, and the next sound in the term is ‘vi’ that should is a soft semi vowel. We then are obligated to change this ‘t’ to the 1st soft sound in the dental class which is ‘d’. Hence caitadvidmaḥ.

    So, we know this – how to create a vritti form when these sounds are found in appostion (~ side-by-side~):

    • a or ā + e = ai i.e. the guṇa ‘e’ + a or ā results in the vritti form ‘ai’
    • a or ā + o = au i.e. the guṇa ‘o’ + a or ā results in the vritti form ‘au’
    • a or ā +ar = ār i.e. the guṇa ‘ar’ + a or ā results in the vritti form ‘ār’
    • a or ā +al = āl i.e. the guṇa ‘al’ + a or ā results in the vritti form ‘āl’


    This ‘ai’ sound formation is used often and found many places. It is useful to de-construct a word and finds its components that can be looked up and defined, so a person knows what a term means. In verse 2.19 of the śrīmad bhāgavad gītā the term yaścainaṁ is used. Note the ‘ai’ use. It tells me that it was formed by a or ā + e = ai . Hence I can then assume the term is a compound word of yaśca+enaṁ.
    I also note that when an ‘s’ comes in contact with a ‘ca’ sound it then is transformed to an ‘ś’. Hence I would look at this word as yas + ca + enam. Note that I do not write the ‘m’ as ṁ simply because I have reversed engineered the word and ‘undo’ the rule that made the ‘m’ an ṁ. The rule says when and ‘m’ comes at the end of the word and is followed by a consonant then it is transformed to ṁ ( called anusvāra). Now I can define what this compound word is offering:

    • yas – to exert or strive after ; some use this as ‘the one who’
    • ca – and
    • enam – this , that (it is used when something is referred to which has already been mentioned in a sentence, or the existing sentence) example: Bob was that man who swam in the ocean.


    The verse reads like this:
    he who understands that (enam) to be the slayer and he who takes that (enam) to be the slain, both fail to perceive the truth. He neither slays nor is slain.
    What is being referred to (enam)? It is Self, that was offered in previous verses ( starting with 2.17)

    more rules in future posts...

    इतिशिवं
    iti śivaṁ
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

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