Re: Two Versions of Capter I, Verse 10
If I may let me offer an additional point of view , in which I rest on my teachers translation for the 10th and 11th verse of chapter 1, bhāgavadgītā. The translation he offers is,
Originally Posted by Indialover
unlimited is that army of ours commanded by bhīṣma , where as their army commanded by bhīma is limited. || 10
Hence aparyāpta and paryāpta is applied as unlimited and limited. Note I am not suggesting that ‘sufficient’ and ‘insufficient’ are not correct by any means, as I agree these definitions are apropos and proper. I myself prefer the use of unlimited and limited for their spiritual significance which I will hold off on and keep to the subject at hand.
Now the 11th verse: therefore stationed in your respective positions on all fronts support bhīṣma alone, all of you! ||11
So, what is going on? According to my teacher it suggests duryodhana’s shrewdness (not fear). In the 10th śloka he is reminding bhīṣma that victory or defeat is in his hands as his army is mighty and well equipped; this is to rally him against bhīma his opponent. In the 11th śloka duryodhana knows that most of the warriors on his side are there primarily for the sake of bhīṣma ( and not him ), hence he encourages the warriors to ‘support bhīṣma alone’ . In other words you are here led by bhīṣma, then bring victory for him!
A few more ideas
Vyāsa-ji¹ gives us a hint on dur + yodhana’s composition\disposition based upon his name of which we can come-up with several views:
- dur = great crime or wickedness
- dur = dvār = gate , door , entrance ; expedient , means , opportunity
- yodhana = the act of fighting , battle , war
Yet too one can argue that ‘dur’ use to be ‘dus’. By the grammar rules of visargaḥ ‘dus’ becomes ‘duḥ’ ; then another rule ( as they are additive) says, if a vowel precedes this ‘ḥ’ it is changed to an ‘r’ when followed by a vowel or soft consonant. The semi-vowel ‘ya’ follows and we can apply the rule ( if I got the sum of the rules properly aligned). So, it means ‘dur’ came from ‘dus’ – and what do we know of ‘dus’ ? ‘Dus’ = evil , bad , difficult , hard.
From these components we can discern that duryodhana is a ‘door’ to fighting and battle. That he is capable of ‘great crimes’ in fighting. One can also postulate that he is a most aggressive and capable warrior; he may be a ‘bad and evil’ fighter, but one could argue he is a ‘hard’ ( tenacious) fighter.
Am I giving duryodhana too much credit ? His other name is suyodhana which = ‘fighting well’ or a supreme fighter (su+yodhana). Still from this name su+ yodhana one could argue it also means su = to urge , impel , incite + yodhana = fighting, battle. So , su+ yodhana could also mean he that ‘instigates’ fighting. If anyone has read the mahābhārata you will know this to be true.
Now that said, I am of the opinion there was no fear within duryodhana. He looked forward to battle , to instigate it, to press forward in battle , to be the ‘door’ though which fighting, and difficult times came to pass.
1. Called veda-vyāsa and regarded as the original compiler and arranger of the veda-s ; son of the sage parāśara and satyavatī who we find within the mahābhārata along with the author, vyāsa-ji. Some too called vyāsa-ji vādarāyaṇa or bādarāyaṇa , and kṛṣṇa due to his dark complexion , and dvaipāyana because he was brought forth by satyavatī on a dvīpa or island in the jumna river.
Last edited by yajvan; 03 September 2016 at 08:50 PM.
because you are identical with śiva