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Thread: Methods of organization in śāstra

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    Methods of organization in śāstra

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~

    Namasté

    At times HDF members may post information that coming from the śāstra-s¹ have different methods of organization. That is, a chapter or verse , or division, or even a whole book. I thought to post some of these divisions and partitions for consideration.

    I will add to the list as they come to mind or that I see in my studies. Perhaps this will help with one's appreciation or comprehension of the great works that are shared as references on HDF.
    • prapāṭhaka प्रपाठक - a lecture ; also a chapter or subdivision of a book
    • adhyāya अध्याय - a chapter, lesson or lecture; also the proper time for readng or a lecture.
    • saṃhitā संहिता - any methodically arranged collection of texts or verses - the various law-books , the medical works, the complete system of natural astrology i.e. a collection, the saṃhitās of the ṛg, sāma, atharva veda ; also the force which holds together and supports the universe.
    • khaṇḍa खण्ड- a section of a work , part , chapter ; a ' break or gap '
    • parva or parvan पर्वन् a division, section; a break; this is also a knot , joint , a limb or member; also a division of time , a moment or instant.
    • vallī वल्ली - sections , particularly used in the upaniṣads e.g. we see vallī-s applied in the kaṭha upaniṣad ; a vallī is considered a creeper , creeping plant; it is also figuartively speaking applied to the arms , eyebrows , lightning, etc. things that may have a commom root that spreads
    • śākhā शाखा - a branch or limb; a branch or school of the veda ; a branch of any science; also a limb of the body , arm or leg
    • śloka श्लोक - is a stanza; also a hymn of praise
    • sūtra सूत्र is rooted in siv सिव् 'to sew or stitch' ; thread , yarn , string , line; a stitch; A sūtra is considered a short, terse, yet concise sentence;
      The notion of 'stitch' is the brevity of the sentence ( perhaps 1 or 2 words) that hang together on a common thread ( idea); example: Brahma sūtra-s or Patañjali’s yogadarśana (the yoga sūtras of Patañjali) .
    • mantra मन्त्र - we think of this as a word, a sound; it is also a vedic hymn; a prayer or song of praise; also a sacred formula
      Some call mantra an instrument of thought. Also in the veda the mantra-s are recognized as:
      • ṛk ऋक् or ṛc ऋच् - praise , verse ;
      • sāman a metrical hymn or song of praise ; sacred text or verse called a sāman intended to be chanted and forming , with ṛc , yajus , chandas ; sāman isr rooted in - acquisition , possession , property , wealth , abundance
      • yajus यजुस् - a sacrificial prayer or formula. They are properly in prose and distinguished from the c and sāman
    • stotra स्तोत्र - a hymn or praise; from stu स्तु - to praise, being praised; e.g. Viṣṇu sahasranāma i.e. the thousand names of Viṣṇu
    • pada पद -a step , pace , stride ; a part , portion , division ; also a ray of light
    • pāda पाद - a verse or line as the fourth part of a regular stanza or śloka; the chapter of a book originally only a book or section of a book consisting of 4 parts
    words
    • śāstra or śāstrá शास्त्र - an instrument of teaching , a manual or compendium, espically any religious or scientific treatise , any sacred book or composition of divine authority ; teaching , instruction , direction , advice , good counsel ; a law-book or whole body of written laws.
    • śastra is invocation , praise applied to any hymn recited either audibly or inaudibly , compared to stoma , which is sung .
    praṇām
    Last edited by yajvan; 15 January 2009 at 08:56 PM.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  2. #2
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    Re: Methods of organization in śāstra

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~

    Namasté

    I will add to the list as they come to mind or that I see in my studies.

    • bhūmikā भूमिका - preface , introduction; a story
    • bhāṣā भाषा- language, some call this gentle talk; description , definition
    • bhāsa भास- light , lustre , brightness ; impression made on the mind;
    These two words bhāṣā & bhāsa are used for an author's commentary on some work - His/Her light, insight, description and comentary on a subject e.g. Srīkaṇṭha's bhāṣā on the Brahma Sūtra-s authored by Bādarāyaṇa.
    • A brief commentary (perhaps like an introduction) would be called a vṛtti वृत्ति (vritti) meaning a mode of being , nature , kind , character , disposition, charactering an idea, work, etc.
    • vārttika वार्त्तिक - is a critical study; explanatory, containing or relating to a critical gloss or annotation ; some call this 'the exposition of the meaning '. Hence this could be an in-depth study or elaboration on an author's bhāṣā
    praṇām

    Last edited by yajvan; 17 January 2009 at 06:40 PM.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  3. #3
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    Re: Methods of organization in śāstra

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    Namast

    Adding to the list
    different methods of organization. That is, a chapter or verse , or division, or even a whole book. I thought to post some of these divisions and partitions for consideration.

    I do not see this word often, but happened to read it just recently:
    • niḥṣyanda निःष्यन्द- a section; like a chapter
    I see this division frequently & use often:
    • kārikā कारिका- concise statement in verse
    Another is laghuvṛtti: laghu लघु + vrtti वृत्ति
    • laghu लघु - light , quick , swift , active , prompt , nimble
    • vṛtti वृत्ति -a commentary , comment , gloss , explanation
    Hence a prompt , light ( not exhaustive) commentary

    praṇām
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  4. #4
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    Re: Methods of organization in śāstra

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    Namasté

    Adding to the list, here is an example:

    Bṛhadaraṇyaka Upaniṣad - Khila khaṇḍa
    • Khila = a compendium , compilation ; that which serves to fill up a gap ,a supplement ; this word also means an unsolvable problem ;
    • two views of khaṇḍa
      • khaṇḍa खण्ड- a section of a work , part , chapter ; a ' break or gap
      • kanda = a lump , swelling , knot
    I find it interesting on how kanda and khaṇḍa relate to part or collection. That is a lump or swelling can equal a chapter. A Swelling or lump of ideas collected ( tied in a knot) into a chapter.

    praṇām
    Last edited by yajvan; 28 January 2009 at 12:11 PM.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  5. #5
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    Re: Methods of organization in śāstra

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    Namasté

    Adding to the list, here is an example:



    Example of parva or parvan पर्वन् a division, section; a break; this is also a knot , joint , a limb or member; also a division of time , a moment or instant.

    Mahābhārata, ādi parva
    • ādi is 1st + parvan is divison, pause, break i.e. the 1st chapter of the Mahābhārata
    Example of pāda and sūtra

    Yogadarśana of Patañjali , Samādhi pāda, 2nd sūtra :
    yogas citta-vtti-nirodha
    (yoga occurs when citta + vṛtti is nirodha i.e. stilled, confined, cessation, cancellation, dissolution, stillness, restraint ).

    Note the Yogadarśana of Patañjali has 4 chapters, hence pāda works well for it's division. The 1st part ( or foot pada) is called Samādhi
    • pāda पाद- a verse or line as the fourth part of a regular stanza or śloka; the chapter of a book originally only a book or section of a book consisting of 4 parts
    • sūtra सूत्र is rooted in siv सिव् 'to sew or stitch' ; thread , yarn , string , line; a stitch; A sūtra is considered a short, terse, yet concise sentence
    praṇām
    Last edited by yajvan; 28 January 2009 at 07:14 PM.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  6. #6
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    Re: Methods of organization in śāstra

    hari o
    ~~~~~

    Namast

    From post 1 above:
    • śāstra or śāstr शास्त्र - an instrument of teaching , a manual or compendium, espically any religious or scientific treatise , any sacred book or composition of divine authority ; teaching , instruction , direction , advice , good counsel ; a law-book or whole body of written laws.
    • saṃhitā संहिता- any methodically arranged collection of texts or verses - the various law-books , the medical works, the complete system of natural astrology i.e. a collection, the saṃhitās of the ṛg, sāma, atharva veda ; also the force which holds together and supports the universe.
    • khaṇḍa खण्ड- a section of a work , part , chapter ; a ' break or gap '
    Here is an example of a śāstra, that is a purāṇa , divided into saṃhitā-s and khaṇḍa-s

    Śiva mahāpurāṇa, divided into 7 saṃhitā-s.
    • Vidyeśvara saṃhitā
    • Rudra saṃhitā ( with sub sections or khaṇḍa-s)
      • Sṛṣti khaṇḍa
      • Satī khaṇḍa
      • Pārvatī khaṇḍa
      • Kumāra khaṇḍa
      • Yuddha khaṇḍa
    • Śatarudrīya saṃhitā
    • Koṭi rudra saṃhitā
    • Umā saṃhitā
    • Kailāśa saṃhitā
    • Vāyavīya saṃhitā
    praṇām

    words
    purāṇa पुराण - belonging to ancient or olden times , ancient , old ; a class of sacred works compiled by vyāsa treating 5 topics i.e. paca-lakṣaṇa ; there are 18 main purāṇas.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

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