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Thread: दर्शनमाला- Darsana Mala-Nārāyana Guru (नारायण गुरु)

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    दर्शनमाला- Darsana Mala-Nārāyana Guru (नारायण गुरु)

    The DARSANA MALA is the most beloved work of Shri. Narayana Guru Devan.

    It is a poem(Sanskrit) of one hundred verses, divided into ten chapters of ten verses each.

    This is not unusual in the Indian tradition where aphoristic verses are often preferred to the long verbose treatises which are the only form used by western philosophy. Panini's Grammar and Patanjali's Yoga Sutras are classic examples of this terse poetic style.

    The DARSANA MALA is a mala, Sanskrit for a necklace or garland, of the "darsanas". A darsana is more or less translatable as a school of philosophy or a thought-system. Traditionally in India there are six schools, but here Narayana Guru has divided the poem into ten and not six sections, which do not correspond strictly to the traditional darsanas. Perhaps the word darsana could be translated here as "philosophical viewpoint".


    For example, the first chapter's point of view is that the world is real and has a creator.
    The next chapter will suppose the opposite; another will view the world as consciousness; yet another from the point of view of action etc.
    Thus, he presents ten possible visions of the universe, of ourselves and of the value or purpose of life - which together comprise philosophy. These different viewpoints could be taken as contradicting or excluding each other, especially in the context of western philosophy. The Guru however links them together by a common thread of value which runs through them all. Each darsana or "vision" is thus related structurally to the others, as are the verses inside each chapter.

    English translation done by Shri. Nataraja Guru, (disciple-successor of Shri. Gurudevan. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nataraja_Guru

    At Narayana Guru's instigation, NatarajaGuru received a Western education at the Sorbonne as well as his training in the ancient wisdom-school represented by Narayana himself. in 1948-49 Nataraja Guru undertook the translation of the Darsana Mala into English.

    A philosophical system in the West means logic, not experience.
    In the West, science and religion have separated.
    Religion has different connotations in East and West.
    In the East, the emphasis is on an experience: a vision.
    Indian Philosophy depends on the experience of a yogi .
    This experience is called a vision, or Darsana.
    Is a Darsana a system of philosophy?
    A "Darsana" is a conceptual and perceptual vision of the Absolute
    Philosophy is logical - Philosophy is distinct from experience.
    Indian Philosophy has a different kind of logic for each of the Darsanas,
    which are closed systems, graded in a certain order.
    In the Bhagavad Gita there are eighteen chapters, each with contradictions.
    Each is a system of its own, with a logic of its own.
    This is not like the West, where every philosophy excludes all others.

    There are traditionally 6 Darsanas, or schools of Indian Philosophy:
    1. Nyaya - founded by Gautama,
    2. Vaisesika -founded by Kanada,
    3. Samkhya - founded by Kapila,
    4. Yoga - founded by Patanjali,
    5. Purva Mimamsa - founded by Jaimini,
    6. Uttara Mimamsa - founded by Badarayana

    This is not unique to Indian Philosophy.
    We may read in the Western context:
    " The world is in me and I am not in the world,
    I am not in them, they are in me”
    or: " The ocean is not in the wave, but the wave is in the ocean".
    These are apparent contradictions or paradoxes.

    The many possible systems of thought that may seem to contradict each other are brought together by the Guru in this work and united by a common thread of value. Narayana Guru adopts a different logic for each vision – he grades them by going progressively from the known to the unknown, starting with the vision of a “real” world created by a “real” god, which is the way most people see the universe.

    In the first chapter, he starts in the Upanishadic tradition with "Adhyaropa" as the first Darsana. Adhyaropa means “supposition”, as in:
    “let us suppose this world is real”.
    The second vision is Apavada: “non-supposition”
    “let us suppose, as some philosophers do, that the world is not real”.

    Thus, the first question is :"whence this world?".
    Narayana Guru respects this question and replies with the first Darsana, in which he first accepts this world as a given datum.
    Why is there reference to a "Lord"? Because a “real” universe with a creator is how most people have seen reality?
    This commonly accepted view must be respected.

    Because of a misunderstanding of this methodology, Vedanta has been charged with:
    Solipsism - quoting itself in support of itself; the argument of self-evidence of the self.
    Syncretism - that it is an aggregate of miscellaneous opinions, composed of all sorts of heterogeneous things assembled together.
    Eclecticism, Escapism , Idealism , Nihilism, Pantheism, Empiricism, Mysticism, Phenomenology, Yogism, Negativity etc.

    (Shri. Nataraja Guru in his commentary about Darsana Mala)

    I VISION BY SUPPOSITION. Commentary
    This is essentially a realistic and theological chapter. If the world is treated as real, then one has to find a source for it somewhere, whether in a maker or a final cause. Usually, Sankara's Vedanta treats the world as Maya, and whatever reality it has in practical life belongs to the order of the Vyavaharika rather than to that of the Paramarthika, which refers to reality in its fullest sense. Here in the Darsana Mala we have a chapter called Adhyaropa which is one of "supposition for argument's sake". Suppose the world is real, as the majority of ordinary men and women take it to be in life? There must be a vision corresponding to such a natural position.
    To brush aside such an ordinary man's position in respect of ordinary natural philosophical problems would be to slight all common men who have doubts. A seemingly theological answer is given here for such a man in the street, but, on careful and closer examination of the contents, one finds that the Guru does not deviate one bit from the strictly Vedantically valid position here; not even when compared to doctrines of the Vedanta Sutras themselves, which begin by stating: "Janmadyasya Yatah": "By which the visible world is traced back to Brahman".(Sutra 2). The justification for this is a long one to explain, but it will suffice to note here that when it is said that the world is the Sankalpa (willed presentiment) of Parameswara ( the Great Lord) and that its status is the same as that of a dream, as the very first verse of this chapter lays down, the position strictly conforming to Vedanta is not violated at all. But instead of referring to the Ajata (uncreated) and Vivarta (presentiment) theories commonly accepted by Advaita Vedantins, the Guru here is able to reconcile a theological God with a philosophical Absolute. In doing so, he bridges the gap which has been the source of much wasted polemics between Sankara, Ramanuja and Madhva.
    II. VISION BY NON-SUPPOSITION Commentary
    This chapter has its accent slightly shifted epistemologically and subjectively from the objective empirical to the mental or rational sphere. It is, however, to be noted that the gross and subtle aspects, one more mental than the other, receive equal emphasis here, instead of one being abandoned in favour of the other. There is an equation of cause and effect, the latter visible and the former intelligible. By cancellation of these two factors, one against the other, the neutral Absolute remains still the "subject matter" as well as the "object matter" of this vision. It thus resembles the Neutral Monism of Russell and James.
    III. VISION OF NON-EXISTENCE Commentary
    This chapter will be seen to be more epistemologically idealist than realist. The blue of the sky is neither "in us" nor " out there", but is a subjective awareness in a more accentuated sense than in the previous vision. The perceptual and the actual are here cancelled out in the Absolute, which can contain them both without contradiction. By the time we reach the last verse of this chapter, all duality between the universal and the specific will have been abolished in favour of a unitive view.
    IV. VISION BY NEGATION Commentary
    Here we enter a deeper epistemological ground in which, beginning from Vidya (knowledge) and its counterpart Avidya (nescience), all epistemological pairs or factors that enter into the negative side of the Absolute as the Maya-principle, which is the over-all category of all possible error in respect of the Absolute, are passed under review, to show how they fall short yet of full- - fledged reality. The epistemological position of Maya, admitting and transcending contradiction, is a subtle one. From Pure Reason to Nature spreads the amplitude of this vision coming under Maya.

    V. VISION OF CONSCIOUSNESS Commentary
    As the last verse of this chapter occupies the central position in the whole work, this chapter is so conceived in epistemological gradation that it studies the neutral Absolute in terms of consciousness alone. The perfect neutrality of the Absolute, where the conceptual and the perceptual abolish each other into the glory of the Absolute, as contained in such Vedantic dicta as Aum Tat Sat (Aum, That Exists) etc., is here marked; and we can say that, like a pendant that might hang in a necklace of gems strung together from its most central gem, the Mahavakya or Great Saying is seen subtly indicated in its most suitable context at the end of the 50th verse of the whole work, at the end of this chapter. The reader or keen student has himself to fit all such detailed implications into the text wherever they are warranted.

    VI. VISION OF ACTION. Commentary
    Here we have already passed the centre of gravity, as it were, of this work. Karma (action or work) is generally considered outside the scope of Vedanta, which is called the Jnana-Kanda (wisdom section); but as Karma-Yoga it appears in the Bhagavad Gita and is to be treated as being on a par with wisdom when done passionlessly as an offering to the Absolute, as a necessary aspect of life only, and non-obligatorily in the social sense. Done in such a free spirit, and in a rationally or dialectically revalued form, it becomes a help rather than a hindrance to emancipation. When done for its own sake, without any duality of ends and means entering into it, and with vertical aspects alone accentuated and the horizontal aspects eliminated, it can be part and parcel of the wisdom-discipline of Advaita Vedanta proper. Like the "unmoved mover" and the "pure act" in the philosophy of Aristotle , there is a dialectically balanced way of engaging in works, without prejudice to one's progress in the path of wisdom. Detachment is referred to in Verse 5, and what takes place within body limits, as also such acts as seeing, which is a kind of interaction between the seer and the seen, the Self and the non- Self, have all to be cancelled out against their dialectical counterparts, and the neutral Absolute arrived at under this Darsana.

    VII. VISION OF AWARENESS Commentary
    Knowledge being the central subject here, one might inquire if this had not been covered in Chapter V. There it was passive awareness that was examined. Here, on the other hand, coming after action of the previous chapter, it is positive thinking and its results that are treated as knowledge. The duality of subject and object comes out again into evidence as a methodological and epistemological necessity for the discussion to complete its round. The various kinds of ratiocination and logical inferences, and the use of analogies, inductively, inferentially or hypothetically, are all covered in an order of the Guru's own. The absolute knowledge mentioned in Verse 10 of this Darsana may be compared with that of the corresponding verse in Chapter V, so as to bring out into full relief the differences in the epistemological status of this chapter, which could be said to be more positive, while the fifth chapter was a neutral view of the same subject as the content, rather than the object, of consciousness.

    VIII. VISION BY CONTEMPLATION. Commentary
    Devotion being the subject of this chapter, a close scrutiny of the verses will reveal that the only distinguishing feature of devotion as against of knowledge in the previous chapter is that an element of joy is introduced here, which will be noticed to become further accentuated in the two remaining Darsanas. Joy, bliss or communion with the Absolute has various grades or degrees before it becomes perfected into identity with the Absolute, which would mark the term of progress in contemplative life. It is the Self that the Self contemplates with joy, and not any deity or godhead before whose idol it is usual to associate a typical man of Bhakti dancing or singing with cymbal or drumbeats in India. Both Sankara and Narayana Guru here elevate Bhakti to a fully contemplative status, dis- -countenancing mere popular effusions in its name.

    IX. VISION OF MEDITATION Commentary
    The title here refers to the most publicized and misunderstood of all topics in Indian spirituality, namely, Yoga.
    Yoga means union of two aspects of the same Self, as if happening within consciousness itself. And further, this union has to be conceived under two distinct heads as happening between the horizontally dual aspects, and as taking place between the lower and higher selves vertically. This delicate distinction has not been brought out by Patanjali in his Yoga-Sutras. The four different definitions of Yoga found in the Bhagavad Gita too, although elaborate in their own way, leave out this delicate matter where the union is both Samyoga (contiguous association) and Sambandha (continuous association) at once, of the tendencies within the Self. The very first verse makes this clear in its striking definition. The joy of being thus unitively absorbed in the Absolute is here seen to be more accentuated than in the case of Bhakti, which is in this respect a more passive or negative state, although both belong to the positive side of contemplation as a whole.

    X. VISION OF EMANCIPATION Commentary
    To complete the contemplative cycle, the supreme value of release or emancipation is here the subject-matter. We find in the world many persons who claim spirituality: how are they to be classified and graded according to inner principles proper to the subject of contemplation?
    Almost like a book on grammar, the Guru here excels in analysis and divides and even numbers the possible varieties of mystical and contemplative experience into various grades and sub-grades. It will be noticed that, in the higher grades, all matters of doing good in a philanthropic sense drop off, although in less perfect stages they exist, as it were, on sufferance. Piety and works have to part company somewhere, and when one is totally absorbed in unity with Brahman, the Absolute, no question of a second value outside the self can even arise. Self-realisation in the fullest sense, when a man forgets himself in the Absolute completely, is the last mark of punctuation to which this garland takes us. It catches up thereby with the very first chapter where the world is given primacy as against the Self that is given primacy in this last of all chapters. The garland thus retains its link with the beginning of the subject, and a full cycle of contemplative topics has thus been covered in a graded inner order, always under the same normative reference to the Absolute.

    DARSANA MALA (1916) - Shri Narayana Gurudevan


    I. ADHYAROPA-DARSANAM (VISION BY SUPPOSITION)

    1.asidagre sadevedam bhuvanam svapnavat punah
    sasarja sarvam sankalpamatrena paramesvarah

    In the beginning, there was
    Non-existence indeed!
    Dream-wise then again, by mere willing
    Everything existent created He, the Lord supreme.

    AGRE, in the beginning (before creation),
    IDAM BHUVANAM, this world,
    ASAD EVA, even as nothingness ( as non-existence, indeed),
    ASID, existed,
    PUNAH, thereafter (at the time of creation),
    PARAMESVARAH, the supreme lord,
    SARVAM, everything,
    SANKALPAMATRENA, by mere willing,
    SVAPNAVAT, like a dream,
    SA-SARJA, (he) created.

    2. vasanamayamevada vasididamatha prabhuh
    asrjanmayaya svasya mayavivakhilam jagat

    In the beginning, in the form of incipient memory factors,
    (All) this remained. Then the Lord,
    By his own power of false presentiment, like a magician,
    Created all this world (of change).

    ADAU, in the beginning (at inception, before creation),
    IDAM, this (visible world),
    VASANAMAYAM EVA, in the form of incipient memory factors,
    (i.e. as Samskaras, deep aperceptive masses in consciousness),
    ASID, (remained) existent,
    ATHA, thereafter (at the time of creation),
    PRABHUH, the lord,
    SVASYA, (by) his own
    MAYAYA, by (his power of) false presentiment,
    MAYAVIVA, like a magician,
    AKHILAM JAGAT, the whole world,
    ASRIJAT, created.

    3. pragutpatteridam svasmin vilinamatha vai svatah
    bijadankuravat svaysa saktireva'srjatsvayam

    This (world) before creation was
    Latent within Himself.
    Thereafter, like a sprout from seed,
    From Himself, by His power, by itself it was created.

    IDAM, this (world),
    PRAKUTPATTEH, before creation,
    SVASMIN, in Himself (in the self, in the lord),
    VILINAM, was latent,
    ATHA VAI, thereafter,
    BIJAD ANKURAVAT, like sprout from seed,
    SVATAH, from himself (from the lord),
    SVASYA SAKTIH, his power,
    SVATAH EVA, by itself,
    ASRJAT, created.

    4. saktistu dvividha jneya taijasi tamasiti ca
    sahavaso'nayornasti tejastimirayoriva

    The power, however, as of two kinds
    Is to be known, as the bright and the dark;
    There is no co-existence between these two,
    As with light and darkness.

    SAKTIS TU, this power, however,
    TAIJASI TAMAS ITI CA, and thus made of light and darkness,
    DVIVIDHA, two kinds,
    JNEYA, is to be known,
    ANAYOH, as between these,
    TEJASTI MIRAYOR IVA, so with light and darkness,
    SAHAVASAH STI, there is no co-existence.

    5. manomatramidam citramivagre sarvamidrsam
    prapayamasa vaicitryam bhagavan citrakaravat

    In the beginning, this world,
    Which was in the form of mind stuff, like a picture
    Achieved with all this picturesque variety,
    Like an artist, the Lord.

    AGRE, in the beginning (before creation),
    MANO MATRAM, in the form of mind-stuff
    (as made of mere mind-stuff),
    IDAM, this (world),
    CITRAM IVA, like a picture,
    SARVAM IDRISAM,all this as such here,
    VAICITRIYAM,(with its picturesque variety),
    PRAPAYAMASA, achieved,
    CITRAKARAVAT, like an artist,
    BHAGAVAN, the lord.

    6. asit prakrtirevedam yatha'dau yogavaibhavah
    vyatanodatha yogivasiddhijalam jagatpatih

    Potentially, what even as Nature remained
    Like the psychic powers of Yoga-
    Like a Yogi did He, the Lord of the world, work out
    His varied psychic powers thereafter.

    ADAU, in the beginning,
    YATHA YOGAVAI BHAVAHA, as (in the case of) psychic powers,
    IDAM, this (world),
    PRAKRTIR EVA, as nature(itself),
    ASIT, remained,
    ATHA, thereafter,
    YOGI SIDDHI JALAMIVA, as a yogi with his varied psychic powers,
    JAGAT PATIH,the lord of the world,
    IDAM, this (world),
    VYATANOD, worked out.

    7. yada'tmavidyasamkocastada'vidya bhayankaram
    namarupatmana'tyartham vibhatiha pisacavat

    When Self-knowledge shrinks,
    Then prevails nescience fearful;
    Ghost-like, taking name and form,
    In most terrible fashion looms here.

    YADA, when,
    ATMA VIDYA SAMKOCAH (BHAVATI), knowledge about the self shrinks,
    TADA, then,
    AVIDYA, nescience,
    NAMA RUPA ATMANA, taking name and form,
    PISACAVAT, ghost-like,
    ATYARTHAM BHAYANKARAM, in most terrible fashion,
    IHA, here,
    VIBHATI, looms

    8. bhayankaramidam sunyam vetalanagaram yatha
    tathaiva visvamakhilam vyakarodadbhutam vibhuh

    Terrible and empty of content
    Like a city infernal,
    Even as such a marvel
    Did the Lord make the whole universe.

    IDAM, this (visible world),
    VETALA NAGARAM YATHA, like an infernal city,
    BHAYANKAR IDAM SUNYAM (CA BHAVATI), terrible and empty of content both (remain),
    VIBHUH, the lord,
    AKHILAMVISVAM, the whole universe,
    TATHA IVA, even as such,
    ADBHUTAM, a marvel,
    VYAKAROD, made

    9. arkadyathakramam visvam tatha naivedamatmanah
    supteriva pradurasidyugapatsvasya viksaya

    If from a sun in graded succession
    This world came, such was not the case at all.
    Presented as if out of slumber,
    At one stroke, all came to be.

    IDAM VISVAM, this world,
    ARKAD, from the sun,
    YATHA KRAMAM, as in a gradual manner,
    PRADURASID (ITI CET), it is unmanifested (if it should be said),
    TATHA NA IVA,thus not at all,
    IDAM, this (world),
    ATMANAH, from the self,
    SVASYA, (by) its own,
    VIKSHAYA, regard (i.e. will),
    SUPTEH IVA, as if from sleep,
    YUGAPAD, at one stroke,
    PRADURASID, all came to be

    10. dhanadiva vato yasmat pradurasididam jagat
    sa brahma sa sivo visnuh sa parah sarva eva sah

    He from whom, like a fig tree as from seed
    Came out this world manifested -
    He is Brahma, He is Siva and Vishnu,
    He is the Ultimate, everything is He indeed.

    DHANAT, from a seed,
    VATAH IVA, like a fig tree,
    YASMAT, from whom,
    IDAM JAGAT, this world,
    PRADURASID, manifested,
    SAH BRAHMA, he is brahma,
    SAH VISNU, he is visnu,
    SAH SIVA, he is siva,
    SAH PARAH, he is the ultimate,
    SAH EVA SARVAH, everything is he indeed

    II. APAVADA-DARSANAM (VISION BY NON-SUPPOSITION)
    1. caitanyadagatam sthulasuksmatmakamidam jagat asti
    cedsadghanam sarvam nasti cedasti cidghanam

    This world, which is both subtle and gross,
    And which has come to be from living consciousness,
    If existent, then everything is existent;
    If non-existent, then it exists as consciousness.

    CAITANYAT, from living consciousness (i.e.the lord),
    AGATAM, what has come to be,
    STHULA SUKSHMATMAKAMIDAM, which is both subtle and gross,
    IDAM JAGAT, this world,
    ASTI CET, if existent,
    SARVAM SADGHANAM ASTI,everything is existent,
    NASTI CET, if non- existent,
    CIDGHANAM ASTI, it exists as consciousness

    2. anyanna karanatkaryam asadedadato'khilam
    asatah kathamutpattiranutpannasya ko layah

    Other than the cause, the effect cannot be,
    Therefore, all this is non-existent.
    Of what is non-existent, how can there be an origin?
    And of something unoriginated, how (can there be) re-absorption?

    KARANAT, from the cause,
    ANYAT, other,
    KARYAM NA, there is no effect,
    ATAH, before,
    ETAT AKHILAM, all this(universe),
    ASAT (BHAVATI), becomes non-existent,
    ASATAH, of what is non-existent,
    UTPATTIH KATHAM, how can there be origin,
    ANUTPANNASYA, of something unoriginated,
    LAYAH, reabsorbtion,
    KAH, how can there be.

    3. yasyotpattirlayo nasti tat param brahma ne'tarat
    utpattisca layo'stiti brahmatyatmani mayaya

    To that which origin and dissolution is not,
    That is none other than the ultimate Absolute.
    (That there) is origin and re-absorption,
    By Maya's confusion in the Self (is supposed).

    YASYA, to that which,
    UTPATTIH LAYA CA, origin and reabsorption,
    NASTI, is not,
    TAT, that,
    PARAM BRAHMA, (than) the ultimate Absolute,
    ITARAT NA, is none other,
    UTPATTIH LAYA CA, origin and reabsorption,
    ATMANI, in the self,
    ASTI ITI, as present,
    MAYAYA, by maya,
    BHRAMATI, by confusion (one thinks)

    4. karanavyatiriktatvat karyasya kathamastita
    bhavatyataha karanasya kathamasti ca nastita

    Because of non-difference from cause,
    The effect, how could it have being?
    How could there be, for the same reason,
    For the cause also, any non-being?

    KARANA VYATIRIKA TVAT, because of non-difference (of effect) from cause,
    KARYASYA, for the effect,
    KATHAM, how could there be,
    ASTITA, (state of) being,
    BHAVATI, come to be,
    ATAH, for the same reason,
    KARANASYA, for the cause,
    NASTITA CA, non-being also,
    KATHAMASTI, how could there be?

    5. karyatvadasato'syasti karanam nahyato jagat
    brahmaiva tarhi sadasaditi muhyati mandadhih

    Being an effect, and thus non-existent,
    An existent cause there is; the world is thus not indeed.
    On the other hand, it is the Absolute alone that is existent,
    That dull minds mistake as non-existing.

    KARYATVAT, because of being an effect,
    ASATAH, what is non-existent,
    ASYA, for this (visible world),
    KARANAM, an (existent) cause,
    ASTI, there is,
    ATAH, therefore (because there is a cause),
    JAGAT, the world (which is an effect),
    NA HI, is not (real) indeed,
    TARHI, on the contrary,
    SAT, existent (as a cause),
    BRAHMA EVA, the absolute it is indeed,
    MANADHIH, dull minds,
    ASAD ITI, as unreal,
    MUHYATI, mistake.

    6. ekasyaivasti satta cedanyasya'sau kva vidyate
    satyastyamatmasrayo yadyapyasati syadasambhavaha

    If one alone has reality,
    Another in it how could there be?
    If existence is posited in existence, tautology,
    And if non-existence is so asserted, contradiction (comes).

    EKASYA EVA, for one only (i.e. for the absolute alone which is the cause)
    SATTA, existence,
    ASTI, there is,
    ANYASYA, for another (i.e. for the world which is an effect,
    ASAU, in this existence,
    KYA VIDYATE, where could it be,
    SATI, within what exists,
    SATTA, existence,
    ASTI CET, if we say there is (existence is),
    ATMASRAYAH, there is petitio principi, (i.e. tautology),
    ASATI, within non-existence,
    (SATTA ASTI, existence is),
    YADI, if we should say,
    ASAMBHAVAH, impossibility (i.e. contradiction),
    API, also,
    SYAD,would come to be

    7. vibhajya'vayavam sarvamekaikam tatra drsyate
    cinmatramakhilam nanyaditi mayaviduragam

    Dividing all parts one by one,
    Everything then is seen there
    As mind stuff alone, and as no other,
    As thus banishing Maya (relativity) far away.

    AVAYAVAM, parts, limbs,
    EKAIKAM, onebyone,
    SARVAM, all,
    VIBHAJYA, Having divided,
    TATRA, then,
    AKHILAM, everything,(i.e. the whole world),
    MAYAVIDURAGAM, banishing maya far away (i.e. without any taint of maya),
    CINMATRA, mind stuff alone (of the stuff of absolute consciousness),
    ANYAT NA, no other thing,
    ITI, thus,
    DRSYATE, is seen.

    8. cideva nanyadhabati citah paramato nahi
    yacca nabhati tadasadyadasattanna bhati ca

    Thus, it is pure mind-stuff alone that shines,
    There is nothing, therefore, beyond pure mind-stuff at all.
    What does not shine is not real either,
    And what is not real does not shine indeed.

    CIT EVA, it is even pure mind-stuff,
    ABHATI, shines,
    ANYAD NA, not anything else,
    ATAH, therefore
    CITAH PARAM, beyond pure mind-stuff(i.e. other than knowledge),
    NAHI, nothing indeed,
    YAT CA, that which also,
    NA ABHATI, does not shine,
    TAT, that,
    ASAT is non-real,
    YAT, that which,
    ASAT, is non-real,
    TAT, that,
    NA BHATI CA, also does not shine indeed.

    9. ananda evasti bhati nanyah kascidato'khilam
    anandaghanamanyanna vina'nandena vidyate

    High Value (bliss) alone exists and shines,
    Therefore nothing else at all,
    Thus, everything is of the stuff of the High Value,
    And besides this High Value, nothing else exists.

    ANANDA EVA ASTI, high value (bliss) alone exists,
    (ANANDA EVA) BHATI, (it is high value alone that) shines,
    ANYAH KASCID NA, not anything else,
    ATAH, therefore,
    AKHILAM, everything (i.e.the whole world),
    ANANDA GHANAM, is of the stuff of this high value,
    ANYAT NA VIDYATE, nothing else exists

    10. sarvam hi saccidanandam neha nana'sti kincana
    yah pasyatiha naneva mrtyormrtyam sa gacchati

    All is indeed existence-subsistence-value,
    Herein there is not even a little plurality.
    He who sees (this) as pluralistic,
    From death to death he goes.

    SARVAM SACCIDANANDAM HI, all this is indeed existence-subsistence- value,
    IHA,herein,
    KINCANA, not even a little,
    NANA, plurality,
    NA ASTI, there is not,
    IHA, in this (absolute),
    YAH, he,
    NANA IVA, as if pluralistic,
    PASYATI, sees,
    SAH, he,
    MRITYOR, from death,
    MRITYAM, to death,
    GACCHATI, he goes.
    III. ASATYA-DARSANAM (VISION OF NON-EXISTENCE)
    1. manomayamidam sarvam na manah kvapi vidyate
    ato vyomniva niladi drsyate jagadatmani

    All this (world) is of mind-stuff,
    The mind, however, is not anywhere.
    Therefore, like the blue and so on in the sky,
    The world is seen in the Self.

    IDAM SARVAM,all this (world)
    MANOMAYAM,is of mind-stuff,
    MANAH,the mind,
    KVAPI,anywhere,
    NA VIDYATE,is not,
    ATAH,therefore,
    VYOMNIVA,in the sky,
    NILADI VA,like the blue and so on,
    ATMANI, in the self,
    JAGAT,the world,
    DRISYATE,is seen.

    2. manaso'nanyaya sarvam kalpyate'vidyaya jagat
    vidyaya'sau layam yati tadalekhyamiva'khilam

    By nescience, which is no other than the mind,
    All this world is a presentiment of the will.
    This (nescience) by knowledge gets reabsorbed,
    Then the whole world (becomes) a mere configuration.

    MANASAH,from the mind,
    ANANYAYA,which is no other,
    AVIDYAYA,by nescience,
    SARVAM JAGAT,all this world,
    KALPYATE,is a presentiment of the will,
    ASAU,this (nescience
    VIDYAYA,by knowledge (i.e. true knowledge of the self),
    LAYAM ITI,gets reabsorbed
    (ignorance is abolished and self-knowledge prevails),
    AKHILAM,the whole (world),
    ALEKHYAMIVA (BHAVATI),then it (becomes)a mere configuration (drawing)

    3. vijrmbhate yattamaso bhiroriha pisacavat
    tadidam jagrati svapnalokavad drsyate budhaih

    Here, what a coward finds through darkness
    To be like a looming ghost,
    The same is seen to be by the wise
    Like a dream-world of a waking state.

    IHA,here (i.e. from a workaday standpoint),
    BHIROH,to a coward,
    TAMASAH,through darkness,
    PISACAVAT,like a ghost,
    YAT,what,
    VIJRIMBHATE,looms,
    TAT IDAM,that same(i.e. what is visible),
    BUDHAIH,by the wise,
    JAGRATI,of the wakeful state,
    SVAPNALOKAVAD,like a dream-world,
    DRSYATE,is seen.


    4. sankalpakalpitam drsyam sankalpo yatra vidyate
    drsyam tatra ca nanyatra kutracidrajjusarpavat.

    This visible world results from a willing presentiment.
    Where willing is present alone
    Is this visible world seen, not anywhere else,
    As a snake, too, when alone a rope is found.

    DRISYAM,this visible world is seen (results),
    SANKALPA KALPITAM,(as) a presentimaent of the will,
    YATRA,where,
    SANKALPAH VIDYATE,willing is present,
    TATRA CA,there alone,
    DRISYAM VIDYATE,this visible (world) (exists),
    ANYATRA KUTRACID NA,not anywhere else,
    RAJJUSARPAVAT,as a snake too where alone a rope (is found)


    5. sankalpamanasoh kascinnahi bhedo'sti yanmanah
    tadavidyatmahprahkyam indrajalam ivadbhutam

    Between the will and the mind,
    There is no difference at all,
    That which is mind and called nescience and darkness,
    Like the magic of Indra, is a marvel.

    SANKALPA MANASAH,as between the will and the mind,
    KASCIT BHEDAH,any difference,
    NA HI ASTI,there is none at all,
    AVIYA TAMAH RAKHYAM,what is called nescience and darkness,
    YAT MANAH,which is mind,
    TAT,that,
    INDRAJALAM IVA,like the magic of Indra,
    ADBHUTAM,is a marvel


    6. maricikavatprajnasya jagadatmani bhasate
    balasya satyamiti ca pratibimbamiva bhramat

    Like a mirage, to a wise man,
    The world looms in the Self,
    Just as to an infant, by confusion,
    A reflected image might real seem too.

    PRAJNASYA,to a wise man,(who can discriminate between what is
    real and what is unreal,
    JAGAT,the world,
    MARICIKAVAT,like a mirage,
    ATMANI,in the self,
    BHASATE,shines,looms,
    BALASYA,to an infant
    (without discrimination),
    BHRAMAT,by confusion,
    PRATIBIMBAM IVA,
    like a reflected image,
    SATYAM ITI CA,as if real too,
    (BHASATE), might seem


    7. atma na ksiravadyati rupantaramato'khilam
    vivartamindrajalena vidyate nirmitam yatha

    This Self, like milk (that turns),
    Does not attain to another form.
    Therefore, the whole (universe), as if created
    By Indra's magic, exists as (an eidetic) presentiment.

    ATMA,the self,
    KSHIRAVAT,like milk,
    RUPA ANTARAM,to another form,
    NA YATHA INDRAJALENA NIRMITAM,as if created by Indra's magic,
    VIVARTAM VIDYATE,exists as (an eidetic) presentiment,
    (i.e.being non-existent,it appears as existent)


    8. mayaiva jagatamadikaranam nirmitam taya
    sarvam hi mayino nanyadasatyam siddhijalavat

    Maya itself is the prime (material) cause
    Of the world, by that which is no other
    Than the Maya-maker (Self) is all this
    Created, as various magical effects.

    MAYA IVA,maya itself is,
    JAGATAM,of the world,(with varied forms),
    ADI KARANAM,the prime material cause,
    MAYINAH NA ANYAT,what is no other than the maya-maker,(i.e. the self),
    SIDDHIJALAVAT ASATYAM,as various unreal magical
    effects,
    SARVAM,everything,(i.e. the whole world),
    TAYA HI,indeed by herself(i.e. by maya),
    NIRMITAM,created,made


    9. vibhati visvam vrddhasya viyadvanamivatmani
    asatyam putrika rupam balasyeva viparyayam

    To the mature mind, this universe
    Looms like a sky-forest in the Self -
    Even as an unreal puppet-form
    To a child (would seem) contrariwise.

    VISVAM,the universe,
    VRIDDHASYA,to the mature mind,
    VIYADVANAM IVA,like a sky-forest,
    ATMANI,in the self,
    VIBHATI,seems,
    ASATYAM,unreal,
    PUTRIKA RUPAM, puppet form,
    BALASYA,to a child,
    VIPARYAYAM IVA,as contrariwise (would seem)


    10. ekam satyam na dvitiyam hyasatyam bhati satyavat
    silaiva sivalingam na dvitiyam silpina krtam

    One (alone) is real, not a second,
    What is unreal, indeed, seems as being real.
    The Siva Lingam is stone itself,
    Not a second made by the mason.

    EKAM SATYAM,one (alone) is real,
    DVITIYAM NA,not a second,
    ASATYAM HI, what is unreal indeed,
    SATYAVAT BHATI,seems as being real,
    SILA IVA SIVA LINGAM,the siva lingam is stone itself,
    SILPINA KRITAM DVITIYAM NA,not a second made by a mason


    IV. MAYA-DARSANAM (VISION BY NEGATION)

    1. na'vidyate ya sa maya vidya'vidya para'para
    tamah pradhanam prakrtirbahudha saiva bhasate

    What is not real, that is Negation,
    Which by itself, as by science-nescience,
    Transcendence-immanence, darkness and prime potency
    Of nature, in many forms looms.

    YA NAVIDYATE,what is not real,
    SA MAYA,that is negation,
    SA EVA,itself,
    VIDYA,science,
    AVIDYA,nescience,
    PARA,transcendance,
    APARA,immanence,
    TAMAH,darkness,
    PRADHANAM,prime potency,
    PRAKRITIH,nature,
    (ITI) BAHUDHA,(thus)in many forms,
    BHASATE,looms


    2. pragutpatteryatha'bhavo mrdeva brahmanah prthak
    na vidyate brahma hi ya sa maya'mevaibhava

    Just as for the origin of the pot the clay itself is
    In its non-being,(so too before the origin of the world),
    as other than the world,
    What had no being as the Absolute itself,
    Such is Maya , the negative principle
    of indeterminate possibility.

    YATHA,just as,
    (GHATASYA) UTPATTEH PRAG,before the origin (of the pot),
    ABHAVAH,the non-existence,
    MRID-EVA,is the clay itself,
    (TATHA JAGAT UTPATTEH PRAK),(in the same way, before the origin of the world),
    YA BRAMANAH PRTHAK NA VIDYATE,what as other than the absolute is not there,
    YA BRAHMA HI,what is the absolute indeed,
    SA MAYA AMEYAVAIBHAVA,such is the negative principle of indeterminate possibility


    3. anatma na sadatma saditi vidyotate yaya
    sa vidyeyam yatha rajjusarpatattvadharanam
    "The non-Self is unreal, the Self is real."
    Thus what looms is vidya (knowledge),
    As the reality of the snake (appearance)
    (Superimposed) on the rope-reality is understood.


    ATMA SAT,the self is real,
    ANATMA NA SAT,the non-self is unreal
    ITI YAYA VIDYOTATE,thus what looms,
    SA IYAM VIDYA,that what is here is knowledge,
    YATHA-RAJJU-SARPA-TATTVA-AVADHARANAM,as the reality of the snake (superimposed) on the reality of the rope is understood


    4. atma na sad anatma saditi vidyotate yaya
    saiva'vidya yatha rajjusarpayoryatharthadrk

    "The Self is unreal, the non-Self is real."
    Thus what looms is avidya (nescience) indeed,
    As the erroneous cognition
    As between rope and snake.
    ATMA NA SAT,the self is unreal,
    ANATMA SAT,the non-self is real,
    ITI YAYA VIDYOTATE,that what looms (in awareness),
    SA EVA AVIDYA, that indeed is nescience,
    YATHA RAJJU-SARPAYOR-AYATHARTHA-DRIK,as the erroneous cognition as between rope and snake


    5. indriyani manobuddhipancapranadayo yaya
    visrjyante saiva para suksmangani cidatmanah

    The senses, the mind, intelligence and the five
    Vital tendencies, what creates-
    That is the transcendent (para) indeed, even (they being)
    The subtle limbs of the reasoning Self.

    CIDATMANAH,of the reasoning self (which is the vital principle),
    SUKSHMA-ANGANI,the subtle limbs,
    INDRIYANI,the senses,
    MANO-BUDDHI-PANCAPRANADAYAH,mind,intelligence,the five vital
    tendencies,etc.,
    YAYA,that by which,
    VISRJYANTE,is created,
    SA-EVA PARA,that indeed is the transcendant aspect (of maya)
    NOTE
    JNANENDRIYAS: the five organs of knowledge; hearing (SROTRA),
    sight (CAKSUS),touch (TVAK),taste (RASANA) and smell (GHRAND)
    KARMENDRIYAS:the five organs of action;speech (VAK),grasping
    (PANI),legs (PADA),excretory organs (PAYO) and sex organs
    (UPASTHA)PANCA PRANAS:the five vital tendencies;the upward vital
    tendency,(PRANA),the downward (APANA),the equalizing (SAMANA),
    the outgoing,(UDANA) and the evenly spread (VYANA)


    6. aganyetanyavastabhya sukhi dukhiva muhyati
    cidatma mayaya svasya tattvato'sti na kincana

    Adopting as its own these limbs, the reasoning Self,
    By its own negative base of error, imagines
    (Itself) as if happy or suffering,
    In truth, there is nothing at all.

    CIDATMA,the reasoning self (which is the vital principle),
    SVASYA MAYAYA,by its own negative base of error,
    ANGANI-ETANI-AVASHTHABYA,adopting as its own these limbs,
    SUKHI IVA,as if happy,
    DUKHI-IVA,as if suffering,
    MUHYATI,imagines,
    TATTVATAH,in truth,
    KINCANA NA ASTI,there is nothing at all


    7. indriyanam hi visayah prapanco'yam visrjyate
    yayasaiva para'dhyatmasthulasankalpanamayi

    The objective data of the senses, which is the world,
    What emanates forth - that indeed,
    In the context of the Self, is the immanent (apara),
    The basis of all gross presentiments of the will.

    INDRIYANAM HI,of the senses indeed,
    VISHAYAH,the objective data,
    AYAM PRAPANCAH,which is the world,
    YAYA,by what (maya factors),
    VISRIJYANTE,emanates forth,
    SA-EVA,that indeed,
    ADHYATMA-STHULA-SANKALPANAMAYI APARA,which in the context of the self is the basis therein of all gross presentiments of the will, is the immanent

    8. suktikayam yatha'jnanam rajatasya yadatmani
    kalpitasya nidanam tattama ityavagamyate

    As the ignorance about the mother-of-pearl
    Is the basis of the silver-presentiment,
    So too what in the Self is the basis (of the world),
    That is known as darkness (tamas).

    YATHA,as,
    SUKTIKAYAM,in the mother-of-pearl,
    KALPITASYA,what is a presentiment,
    RAJATASYA,of silver,
    AJNANAM,lack of knowledge
    NIDANAM,the basis,
    BHAVATI,is,
    TATHA,so,
    ATMANI,in the self,
    YAD,that which,
    KALPITASYA,of what is imagined,
    JAGATAH,as the world,
    NIDANAM,the basis,
    AJNANAM,lack of knowledge,
    TAT-TAMAH-ITI-AVAGAMYATE,this is known as darkness


    9. dhiyate'smin prakarsena bije vrksa ivakhilam
    atah pradhanyato va'sya pradhanamiti kathyate

    Because of being that aspect (of Maya) which is a marvel,
    By containing all this (universe) like a tree in a seed,
    Or by virtue of its importance (above others),
    This here is known as the prime potent power (pradhana).

    BIJE-VRIKSHA-IVA-AKHILAM,as the tree in the seed,everything,
    ASMIN,in this (i.e.in this aspect of maya),
    PRAKARSHENA DHIYATE,contains as a marvel,
    ITI ATAH VA,or else it,
    ASYA,of this,
    PRADHANYATAH (VA),(or) its importance
    ,IDAM,this,
    PRADHANAM -ITI- KATHYATE,is known as the prime potent power.

    10. karotiti prakarsena prakrtyaiva gunan prthak
    nigadyate'sau prakrtiritihatrigunatmika

    By its very nature, because in a marvellous way
    It diversifies the three nature modalities,
    This aspect (of Maya) consisting of the three
    Modalities is well known as Nature (prakrti).

    PRAKRTYA-EVA,by its very nature,
    GUNAN,the nature modalities,
    PRAKARSHENA,in a marvellous way,
    PRTHAK KAROTI-ITI,in that it diversifies,
    ASAU,(this aspect of maya),
    TRIGUNATMIKA,as consisting of the three modalities,
    PRAKRTIH-ITI-HA NIGADYATE,it is well-known as nature (PRAKRTI)


    V. BHANA-DARSANAM (VISION OF CONSCIOUSNESS)

    1. antarbahirvadasinam sada bhramaracancalam
    bhanam dvidhaiva samanyam visesa iti bhidyate

    Present equally within (and) without,
    In constant bee-agitation,
    Consciousness is of two kinds-
    The generic and the specific.

    BAHIRVAD ANTAH ASINAM,present as within (and) without,
    SADA BRAHMARA-CANCALAM-BHANAM,in constant bee-agitation,
    consciousness,
    SAMANYAM VISESAH ITI,as the generic and the specific,
    DVIDHA-EVA BHIDYATE,is of two kinds


    2. sthulam suksmam karanam ca turyam ceti caturvidham
    bhanasrayam hi tannama bhanasyapyupyacaryate

    As the concrete, the subtle, the causal and the Absolute,
    Basic consciousness (is) of four kinds,
    So these names even (of basic consciousness)
    Are also applicable to consciousness.

    STHULAM,(as the) concrete,
    SUKSHMAM,the subtle,
    KARANAM,the causal,
    TURYAM CA ITI,and the absolute,
    CATURVIDHAM,(there are) four kinds,
    BHANASRAYAM (BHAVATI),of basic consciousness,
    TAT NAMA HI,these names too,
    BHANASYA API,for consciousness also,
    UPACARYATE CA,are applicable also


    3. drsyatmiha kayo'ham ghato'yamiti drsyate
    sthulamasritya yadbhanam sthulam taditi manyate

    Lo, here, "I am the body, this is the pot,"
    Depending on the concrete,
    What looms in consciousness,
    That is known as the concrete.

    IHA,here (in a visible manner),
    DRSYATAM,lo,
    AHAM KAYAH ,I am the body,
    AYAM GHATAH ITI,this is the pot,
    STHULAM-ASRITYA,depending on the concrete,
    YAT BHANAM DRSYATE,what looms as consciousness,
    TAT STHULAM ITI MANYATE,that is known as the concrete


    4. atra kayo ghata iti bhanam yattadvisisyate
    tatha'hamayamiti yat samanyamiti ca smrtam

    Here, what is the consciousness of the body
    And the pot, that is the specific,
    Likewise too what is (the consciousness of) "I" or "this"
    Is known as the generic.

    ATAR,here (in what has been said above),
    KAYAH,(of) the body,
    GHATAH,the pot,ITI BHANAM YAT,what is the consciousness,
    TAT VASISHYATE,that is the specific,
    TATHA,likewise,AHAM,(of)"I",
    AYAM,"this",
    (BHANAM) YAT,what is (the consciousness),
    (TAT) SAMANYAM-ITI CA SMRTAM,(this) as the generic is known


    5. indriyani manobuddhivisayah panca vayavah
    bhasyante yena tatsuksmam asya suksmasrayatvatah

    The senses, mind, intellect, interest items
    And the five vital tendencies,
    By what are made conscious - that is (know as) the subtle.
    Because of dependence on the subtle.

    INDRIYANI,the senses (such as hearing),
    MANO-BUDDHI,mind (and) intellect,
    VISHAYAH,interest items,(like sound and form),
    PANCAVAYAVAHA,the five vital tendencies,
    YENA BHASYANTE,by what is made conscious,
    ASYA SUKSHMASRAYATVATAH,because of dependence on the subtle,
    TAT SUKSHMAM (ITI MANYATE),this (is known) as the subtle

    6. ajno'hamiti yadbhanam tatkaranamudhartam
    atra'hamiti samanyam viseso'jna iti sphurat

    "I am ignorant" Such a consciousness
    Is said to be the causal.
    Here , that aspect which stands for "I" is the generic,
    And the specific what stands for "am ignorant"
    AJNOHAM,"I am ignorant",
    ITI BHANAM YAT,such a (specific) consciousness,
    TAT KARANAM ITI UDAHRITAM is said to be causal,
    ATRA,here,
    AHAM-ITI YAT TAT SMANYAM,what stands for "I" is the generic,
    AJNANAH ITI SPHURAT (YAT TAT) VISESHAH (CA BHAVATI), (and that which) makes for the consciousness "am ignorant" is the specific.


    7. aham brahmeti yadbhanam tatturyamiti samsyate
    samanyamahamitiyamso brahmetyatra visisyate

    "I am the Absolute." Thus what consciousness attains
    Is praised as (the consciousness of) the Absolute.
    Here, the element "I" is the generic,
    And "Absolute" is its specific attribute.

    AHAM BRAHMA-ITI BHANAM YAT,"I am the Absolute"- thus what
    consciousness makes,
    TAT-TURYAM-ITI SAMSYATE,is praised as that absolute (consciousness),
    ATRA,here,
    AHAM-ITI-AMSAH SAMANYAM,the element "I" is the generic,
    BRAHMA-ITI (AMSAH) VISISHYATE, (the element that refers to)the absolute is the specific

    8. yatra bhanam tatra bhasyam bhanam yatra na
    samanyamahamitiyamso brahmetyatra visisyate

    Where consciousness (exists), there the
    Object of consciousness (exists), where
    Consciousness exists not, its object neither.
    Thus, both by agreement and difference, certitude comes.

    YATRA BHANAM (VARTATE),where consciousness (exists),
    TATRA BHASYAM VARTATE,there (exists) the object of consciousness,
    YATRA BHANAM NA (VARTATE),where consciousness (exists) not,
    TARA BHASYAM NA VARTATE,the object of consciousness (exists) not,
    ITI-ANVAYENA VYATIRIKENA API BODHYATE,so by agreement and
    difference certitude comes


    9. yatha drgdrsamatmanam svayamatma na pasyati
    ato na bhasyate hyatma yam pasyati sa bhasyate

    As with the eye which cannot see itself,
    (So) the Self does not see itself,
    Therefore indeed, the Self is not the object of consciousness.
    That which the Self sees is the object of consciousness.

    YATHA DRIG-DRISAM SVAYAM NA PASYATI,as with the eye that cannot see itself, (TATHA) ATMA ATMANAM (SVAYAM) NA PASYATI,(so) the self does not see itself,
    ATA ATMA NA BHASYATE HI,therefore indeed the self is not the object of consciousness,
    ATMA-YAM PASYATI SA BHASYATE, that which the self sees is the object of consciousness

    10. yadbhasyate tadadhyastam anadhyastam na bhasyate
    yadadhyastam tadasadapyanadhyastam sadeva tat

    What is the object of consciousness, that is conditioned,
    What is unconditioned, that is not the object of consciousness.
    What is conditioned is non-existent,
    But what is unconditioned, itself THE EXISTENT IS THAT.

    YAD BHASYATE,what is the object of consciousness,
    TAD ADHYASTAM (BHAVATI)that is conditioned,
    YADANADHYASTAM,what is unconditioned,
    TAT NA BHASYATE,that is not the object of consciousness,
    YAD ADHYASTAM, what is conditioned,
    TAT ASAD,that is non-existent,
    API YAT ANADHYASTAM, and what is unconditioned (i.e. the self),
    TAT SAD-EVA,itself THE EXISTENT IS THAT


    VI. KARMA-DARSANAM (VISION OF ACTION)

    1. atmaiva mayaya karma karoti bahurupadhrk
    asangah svaprakaso'pi nidrayamiva taijasah

    It is indeed the Self, though self-luminous
    And detached, that through negativity
    Does action bearing many forms,
    Like the dream-agent in sleep.

    ASANGA SVAPRAKASAH-API,although detached and self-luminous,
    NIDRAYAM TAIJASAH IVA,like the dream-agent in sleep,
    ATMA-EVA BAHURUPADHRIK,the self itself bearing many forms,
    MAYAYA KARMA KAROTI,by means of its negative principle does
    action

    2. manye vadami grhnami srnomitiyadirupatah
    kriyate karma paramatmana cittendriyatmana

    "I think, I speak, I grasp, I hear."
    In forms such as these are actions accomplished
    By the supreme Self, (which is also)
    The Self of pure reason and the senses.

    PARAMATMANA MANVE VADAMI GRIHNAMI,by the supreme self "I speak, I grasp",
    SRINOMI-ITYADI RUPATAH,"I hear",in such forms,
    KARMA KRIYATE,actions are accomplished,
    CITENDRIYATMANA,by the self of pure reason and the senses (having the form of ego-sense with motor senses)


    3. atmaivah karmanah purvamanyat kincinna vidyate
    tatah svenaiva karmani kriyante nijamayaya

    Prior to action, it is the Self (that exists);
    There is nothing else at all.
    Through the Self, by its own negative principle,.
    By itself are accomplished all actions.

    KARMANAH PURVAM, prior to action,
    ATMA-EVA VIDYATE, it is the self that exists,
    ANYAT KINCIT NA,there is nothing else at all,
    TATAH,through it,
    SVENA-EVA,by theself itself,
    NIJAMAYAYA,by its own negative principle,
    KARMANI KRIYANTE,(all) action is accomplished


    4. saktirasyamanah kacid durghata na prthak svatah
    tayaivaropyate karma nikhilam niskriyatmani

    From the Self, not different from itself
    There exists a certain undefinable specificatory power
    By that (power), all actions
    Are falsely attributed to the actionless Self.

    ATMANAH,from the self,
    SVATAH NA PRTHAK,not different from itself,
    DURGATAH,an undefinable,
    KACID SAKTIH ASTI,there exists a certain (specificatory) power,
    TAYA-EVA,by that (power),
    AROPYATE,is falsely attributed,
    NIKHILAM KARMA,all action,
    NISHKRIYATMANI,in the actionless self


    5. sarvada'sanga evatma 'jnataya karma sangivat
    karoti na karomiti na jnah karmasu sajjate

    The Self is always detached indeed.
    One performs action as if attached due to ignorance.
    The wise man, saying "I do nothing,"
    Is not interested in action.

    ATMA,the self,
    SARVADA,always,
    ASANGA EVA,is detached indeed,
    AJNATAYA,due to ignorance,
    SANGIVAT,as if attached,
    KARMA KAROTI,does the action,
    JNAH,the wise man,
    NA KAROM-ITI,saying "I do nothing"
    NA KARMASU SAJJATE,is not interested in action


    6. jvalati jvalano vayurvati varsati varidah
    dharatma san dharati khalveko vahati vahini

    The one (Self) alone as fire (it) burns,
    As wind (it) blows,
    As water (it) rains,
    As earth (it) supports (and) as a river (it) flows.

    EKAH KHALU,the one (self) alone,
    JVALANAH SAN JVALATI,as fire it burns,
    VAYUH SAN VATI,as wind (it) blows,
    VARIDAH SAN VARSHATI, as water it rains,
    DHARATMA SAN DHARATI,as earth it supports,
    VAHINI SAN VAHATI,as a river it flows


    7. urdhvam prano hyadho'panah khalveko yati niskriyah
    nadyantarale dhamati krandoti spandati sthitah

    The one (Self) alone, remaining actionless,
    Moves (as) upward and downward vital tendencies
    Within the nervous centres, indeed,
    It beats, murmurs and pulsates.

    EKAH KHALU,the one (self) alone,
    NISHKRIYAH STHITAH,remaining actionless,
    PRANAH (SAN) URDHVAN,as upwards vital tendency,
    APANAH (SAN) ADAH,as downward vital tendency,
    YATI,moves,
    NADYANTARALE, within the nervous centres,
    DHAMATI KRANDATI SPHANDATI HI,indeed beats,murmurs and pulsates


    8. astijanmarddhiparinatyapaksayavinasanam
    sadbhavamiha yo yati sa nanyo'vikriyatmanah

    Here (in this visible world), as what exists,
    Grows, transforms, decreases and attains its end-
    As subject to six forms of becoming-
    (That) is no other than the actionless Self.

    IVA,here (in this visible world),
    YAH,what,
    ASTI JANMAR ADHI PARINATYA PAKSHAYA VINASANAM, as what exists,is born,grows, is transformed,decreases,attains its end,
    SHADBHAVAM,six forms,
    YATI,what is subject to,
    SAH,that,
    AVIKRIYATMANAH,from the actionless self,
    ANYAH NA,is no other


    9. svayam kriyante karmani karanairindriyairapi
    aham tvasangah kutastha iti janati kovidah

    By means of the inner organs and the senses
    Actions become Self-accomplished.
    However, the wise man knows,
    "I am the unattached, inner well-founded one"

    KARANAIH-INDRIYAIH-API,by the means of the inner organ and the
    senses,
    KARMANI SVAYAM KRIYANTE,actions become self-accomplished,
    KOVIDAH TU,however,the wise man,
    AHAM ASANGAH KUTASTHA ITI JANATI,knows "I am am the unattached,inner well-founded one"


    10. drsyatvadbhasyamaham apyato'ham suktirangavat
    adhyastameka evadya svopi sarvoparisthitah

    Because of being an object of experience,
    Even the "I" is a conditioning factor,
    Superimposed like the mother-of-pearl gleam.
    Above everything else, today and tomorrow one alone is.

    AHAM API,even the "I",
    DRISYATVAT,because of being the object of experience,
    BHASYAM,is a conditioning factor,ATAH,because of this,
    AHAM,I,SUKTI-RANGAVAT,like the silver gleam in the mother-of-pearl,
    ADHYASTAM,is superimposed,
    ADYA SVOPI,today and tomorrow (i.e. always),
    SARVOPARI-STHITAH,fixed above all things,
    EKAH EVA,even one (is)


    VII. JNANA-DARSANAM (VISION OF AWARENESS)

    1. jnanamekam hi nirupadhikam sopadhikam ca tat
    ahankaridhinam yajjnanam tannirupadhikam

    Awareness is one and unconditioned indeed,
    There is also the conditioned.
    Awareness without egoism, etc.,
    That is the unconditioned.

    JNANAM-EKAM NIRUPADHIKAM HI,awareness is one and unconditioned indeed,
    SOPADHIKAM CA TAT,that is also the conditioned,
    YAT JNANAM AHAMKARADI-HINAM,awareness without egoism,etc.,
    TAT NIRUPADHIKAM,that is the unconditioned

    2. ahantaya'ntarbahirasti yadevamidantaya
    bhanavrttya'nvitam yattu jnanam sopadhikam

    That which is accompanied by egoism as if inside,
    And which again as qualified by this-ness is
    Accompanied by conscious activity,
    Such awareness is to be understood as conditioned.

    YAT,that which,
    AHANTAYA BHANA VRITTYANVITAM ANTAH, accompanied by the active consciousness of egoism inside,
    EVAM YATTU,that by which again,
    IDANTAYA (BHANA VRITTYANVITAM CA) ASTI,as if accompanied by active consciousness thisness) as outside,
    (TAT) JNANAM,(that) awareness,
    SOPADHIKAM (ITI)
    MATAM,is understood to be conditioned


    3. anatmanamahankaradinam yenanubhuyate
    saksi tadatmajnanam syadyenaivamrtamasyate

    That by which are experienced all things
    Of the non-Self, such as egoism, etc.,
    And even by which immortality is enjoyed,
    (As) the Witness, is Self-awareness.

    ANATMANAM,of things pertaining to the non self,
    AHAMKARADINAM,such as egoism,etc,
    SAKSHI,the witness(i.e. the self),
    YENA-ANUBHUYATE, what is experienced,
    YENA-EVA,by which even,
    AMRITAM,immortality,
    ASYATE,is enjoyed,
    TAT-ATMA-JNANAM SYAD,that is (absolute) self-awareness


    4. ahankaradi karyam yadanatmakamasankhyakam
    yenavagamyate'natmajnanam tadavadharyate

    As innumerable effects of egoism, etc.,
    What as pertaining to the non-Self
    Attains to awareness, that is said to be
    Awareness of the non-Self.

    YAT,what,
    ANATMAKAM,as pertaining to the non self,
    ASANKHYAKAM,as innumerable,
    AHANKAR ADI KARYAM,as effects such as egoism etc.,
    YENA,by what,
    AVAGAMYATE,awareness attains,
    TAT,that,ANATMAJNANAM (ITI),as awareness of the non-self,
    AVADHARYATE,it is said to be

    5. yathavadvastuvijnanam rajjutattvabodhavat
    yattadyatharthavijnanamayatharthamato'nyatha

    Knowing things as they really are,
    As when one attains to the truth of the rope,
    What makes for such is true awareness,
    Wrong awareness is what is otherwise.

    RAJJU-TATTVA-AVABODHAVAT,like the right knowledge about the rope,
    YATHAVAT-VASTU-VIJNANAM,awareness of things as they really are,
    YAT,which,
    TAT-YATHARTHA-VIJNANAM,that is right awareness,
    ATHAH ANYATHE,what is different from this,
    AVATHARTHAM (CA BHAVATI),wrong awareness(too becomes)


    6. yatsannidhyadeva sarvam bhasate svayameva tat
    pratyaksajnanamiticaparoksamiti laksyate

    By the very presence of which everything looms
    In consciousness by itself,
    That awareness is indicated as empirical awareness,
    And also as non-transcendental awareness.

    YAT-SANNIDHYAD-EVA,by the very presence of which,
    SARVAM SVAYAM-EVA BHASATE,everything looms in consciousness by itself,
    TAT,that,
    PRATYAKSHA-JNANAM-ITI,as empirical awareness,
    APAROKSHAM-ITI CA and also as non-transcendental awareness,
    LAKSHYATE,is indicated


    7. yaya'nusadhakam sadhyam miyate jnanarupaya
    vrttya sa'numitissahacarasyamskarajanyaya

    That function of awareness by which
    The means to an end is appraised,
    And which arises out of associative innate disposition,
    That is inferential awareness.

    YAYA,that by which,
    SAHACARYA-SAMSKARA-JANYAYA,as originating in associative innate disposition,
    JNANARUPAYA,having the form of awareness,
    VRTTYA,by function,
    ANUSADHAKAM SADHYAM,means for ends,
    MIYATE,are brought into awareness,
    SA-ANUMITI,this is inferential (awareness)


    8. gatva samipam meyasya miyate srutalaksanah
    yaya samvitsopamitirmrgo'yamiti rupaya

    On going near to an object to be ascertained,
    What - in the form of "this is the animal
    known by such marks"-
    Is the functional basis for certitude,
    That is (said to be) analogical awareness.

    MEYASYA,of the object to be known,
    SAMIPAM,near,
    GATVA,going,
    SRUTA-LAKSHANAH MRIGAH-AYAM-ITI RUPAYA,in the
    form of " this is the animal having the marks I heard about",
    YAYA (VRITTYA),by what (functional activity),
    (MEYAH) MIYATE,(what is to be understood) is brought into awareness,
    SA SAMVIT UPAMITIH,this is analogical awareness

    9. aham mameti jnanam yadidam taditi yacca tat
    jivajnanam tadaparamindriyajnanamisyate

    That awareness of "I" and "mine"
    And that other as "this" or "that"-
    The former as vital awareness, and the latter
    As sense awareness, is declared.

    AHAM MAMA-ITI JNANAM YAT,that awareness expressing itself as "I"and "mine",
    TAT JIVA-JNANAM,that as vital awareness,
    APARAM IDAM TAD-ITI JNANAM YAT,and that which also expresses itself as "this"and "that",
    TAT INDRIYA JNANAM CA, that as sense awareness
    ,ISHYATE,is declared

    10. om tatsaditi nirdistam brahmataiyamupagattam
    kalpanadivihinam yattatparajnanamiryate

    Designated as AUM, THAT EXISTS,
    Attained to unity of Absolute and Self,
    Devoid of willing and other functions -
    That is said to be the ultimate awareness.

    AUM-TAT-SAD-ITI NIRDISHTAM,that which is designated as "aum- that-exists",
    BRAHMATMA AIKYAM,the unity of the self and the absolute,
    UPAGATTAM,havingattained,
    KALPANADI VIHINAM,devoid of all willing,
    (JNANAM) YAT,what awareness there is,
    TAT-PARAJNANAM (ITI) IRYATE, that is said to be the ultimate awareness
    VIII. BHAKTI-DARSANAM (VISION BY CONTEMPLATION)

    1. bhaktiratmanusandhanamatma'nandaghano yatah
    atmanamanusandhatte sadaivatmavidatmana

    Meditation on the Self is contemplation,
    Because the Self consists of bliss,
    A knower of the Self meditates by the Self,
    Upon the Self, for ever.

    ATMAANUSANDHAMNAM,meditation on theself,
    BHAKTIH,contemplation,
    YATAH,because,
    ATMA,theself,
    ANANDAGHANAH (BHAVATI),Consists of bliss,
    TATAH,for that reason,
    ATMAVID,a knower of the self,
    ATMANAM,the self,
    ATMANA,by the self,
    SADA-EVA,forever always,
    ANUSANDHATTE,meditates upon


    2. anusandhiyate brahma brahmanandaghanam yatah
    sada brahmanusandhanam bhaktirityavagamyate

    The Absolute is meditated upon
    Because it consists of bliss.
    Constant meditation on the Absolute
    Is thus known as contemplation.

    BRAHMA,the absolute,
    ANUSANDHIYATE,is meditated upon,
    YATAH,because of this,
    BRAHMA,the absolute,
    ANANDAGHANAM, consists of bliss,
    SADA BRAHMA-ANUSANDHANAM,constant meditation on the absolute,
    BHAKTIHITI-AVAGAMYATE,is thus known as contemplation


    3. anandameva dhyayanti sarve duhkham na kascana
    yadanandaparam dhyanam bhaktirityupadisyate

    It is even bliss that all do meditate,
    No one at all (meditates) suffering.
    That which is meditation of bliss,
    As contemplation it is thought.

    SARVE,all,ANADAM-EVA,even bliss,
    DHYAYANTI,do meditate,
    KASCANA,no-one,
    DUHKAM,suffering,
    NA (DHYAYATI),does not (meditate),
    YAT,that which,
    ANANDAPARAM,as pertaining to bliss,
    DHYANAM,meditation,
    (TAT),(that),BHAKTIH-ITI,as contemplation,
    UPADISYATE,it is taught

    4. atmaiva brahma bhajati nanyamatmanamatmavit
    bhajatiti yadatmanam bhaktirityabhidhiyate

    It is the Self alone that contemplates the Absolute;
    The knower of the Self
    Meditates on the Self, and not on any other.
    That which is meditation on the Self
    Is said to be contemplation.

    ATMA-EVA BRAHMA,it is the self alone that is the absolute,
    ATMAVIT,the knower of the self,
    ATMANAM,on the self,
    BHAJATI,meditates,
    ANYAM NA (BHAJATI),does not (meditate) any other,
    ATMANAM,on the self,
    BHAJATI-ITI-YAT,that which is meditation,
    (TAT)BHAKTIH-ITI, (that) as contemplation,
    ABHIDHIYATE,is said to be

    5. ananda atma brahmeti namaitasyaiva tanyate
    iti niscitadhiryasya sa bhakta iti visrutah

    Bliss, the Self and the Absolute
    Are said to be the names of this alone.
    In whom there is such sure awareness,
    He as a contemplative is well known.

    ANANDAH ATMA BRAHMA-ITI,bliss,the self and the absolute,
    ETASYA-EVA NAMA,are the names of this alone,
    ANYATE,is said to be,
    ITI,thus,
    YASYA,of whom,
    NISCTADHIH (ASTI),there(is) sure awareness,
    SAH,he,BHAKTAH IVA VISRUTAH,so as a contemplative is well known


    6. anando'hamaham brahma'tma'hamasmiti rupatah
    bhavena satatam yasya sa bhakta iti visrutah

    "I am Bliss, I am the Absolute, I am the Self."
    In whom, in such forms,
    There is always creative imagination,
    As a contemplative he is well known.

    AHAM ANANDAHA-ASMI,"I am bliss",
    AHAM BRAHMA (ASMI)," I am the absolute",
    AHAM ATMA (ASMI),”I am the self”,
    ITI RUPATAH,in such forms,
    YASYA,in whom,
    SATATAM,always,
    BHAVANA (ASTI),there (is) creative imagination,
    SA BHAKTAH ITI VISRUTAH,as a contemplative he is well known


    7. bharya bhajati bhartaram bhartta bharyam na
    svanandameva bhajati sarvopi visayastitam

    The wife does not merely adore the husband,
    Nor the husband merely adore the wife,
    It is self-bliss alone that they adore,
    As lodged within every sensuous object.

    BHARYA BHARTARAM, the wife,the husband,
    NAKEVALAM BHAJATI, does not merely,
    BHARTTA-BHARYAM,the husband the wife,
    NA BHAJATI,does not merely adore,
    SARVAH-API,even every,
    VISHAYA-STHITAM,lodged within every sensuous object,
    SVANANDAM EVA,it is even self-bliss,
    BHAJATI,(they) adore


    8. evam pasyati kutrapi vidvanatmasukham vina
    na kincidaparam tasya bhaktireva gariyasi

    For the wise man who sees
    Thus at any place whatever,
    There is nothing at all other than Self-bliss.
    (Such) contemplation verily is the highest.

    EVAM,thus,VIDVAN,the wise man(of self-knowledge),
    KUTRAPI,at any place whatever,
    ATMA SUKHAM VINA,other than self-bliss,
    APARAMKINCID(API),(even) a little of anything else,
    NA PASYATI,does not see,
    TASYA BHAKTIH-EVA,his contemplation verily,
    GARIYASI,is most exalted


    9. lokasya pitari svasyagurau pitari matari
    satyasya sthapitari ca tatpathenaiva yatari

    Towards the Father of the World, to one`s
    Spiritual teacher, father, mother,
    Towards the Founders of Truth, and
    Towards those who walk in the same path;

    LOKASYA PITARI,towards the father of the world,
    SVASYA,to one's,
    GURAU PITARI MATARI,spiritual teacher,father,mother,
    SATYASYA STHAPITARI,towards the founders of truth,
    TAT-PATHENA-EVAYATARI,towards those who walk in the same path


    10. niyantari nisiddhasya sarvesam hitakarttari
    yo'nurago bhaktiratra sa para paramatmani

    Towards those who put down evil,
    And those who do good to all -
    What sympathy there is, is devotion here,
    (While) what here belongs to the Self Supreme is the ultimate.

    NISHIDHASYA NIYANATARI,towards those who put down evil (i.e.
    towards those who control (their subjects) from forbidden actions),
    SARVESAM HITA KARTTARI (CA),(also) towards those who do good to all,
    ANURANGAH YA,what sympathy there is,
    SA BHAKTIH,that is devotion,
    ATRA PARAMATMANI,what belongs to the supreme self,
    SA PARA,that is the ultimate (devotion)


    IX. YOGA-DARSANAM (VISION OF MEDITATION)

    1. satatam yojayati yadyunakti ca cidatmani
    mano nirodharupo'yam sa yoga iti samsitah

    That which always unites the mind
    With the reasoning Self, and also gets united with it,
    And which is in the form of restraint,
    That is praised as Yoga.

    YAD,that which,
    CIDATMANI,in the reasoning self (i.e. in the absolute which is in the nature of wisdom)
    MANAH,the mind,
    SATATAM,always,
    YOJAYATI,unites,
    YUNAKTI CA and gets united,
    NIRODHA-RUPAH SAH AYAM,that which is of the form of restraint (of the mind),
    YOGAH,yoga,
    ITI SAMSITAH,is praised to be


    2. na drasta darsanam drsyam vidyate yatra tatra hrt
    yojayedvasana yavadyogo'yamiti yogavit

    Where the seer, the sight and the seen
    Are not present, there the heart
    Should be joined, as long as incipient memory-factors (are present):
    Such is Yoga, (says) the knower of Yoga.

    YATRA,where,
    DRASHTA DARSANAM DRISYAM CA,the seer,the sight and
    the seen,
    NA VIDYATE,are not present,
    TATRA,there (i.e. in the ultimate self),
    HRIT,the heart (or mind),
    YAVAT VASANA (VIDYATE),as long as incipient memory factors (are present),
    YOJAYET,it should be joined,
    AYAM YOGAH,such is yoga,
    ITI YOGAVIT (VADATI),(says) the knower of yoga


    3. namarupamidam sarvam brahmaiveti viliyate
    yadbrahmani mano nityam sa yoga iti niscitah

    All this consisting of name-form, (knowing)
    As verily the Absolute, the mind ever merges
    In the Absolute, what constitutes such,
    As Yoga is ascertained.

    IDAM NAMA-RUPAM SARVAM,all this of name-form,
    BRAHMA-EVA ITI,as verily the absolute,
    MANAH,the mind,
    NITYAM,always,
    BRAHMANI,in the absolute,
    VILIYATE,gets merged,
    (ITI) YAT,(such) what is,
    SAH,that,
    YOGAH ITI NISCITAH,as yoga is ascertained

    4. cittasya tailadharavadvrttya'vichinnaya'tmani
    nirantaram ramyate yatsayogo yogibhih smrtah

    The unbroken functioning of reason
    Which in the Self, like a streak of oil,
    Finds incessant joy - such as Yoga
    Is by Yogis recognized.

    TAILA-DHARAVAT,like the streak of flowing oil,
    AVICCHANNAYA,unbroken,
    ITTASYAVRITTYA,by the functioning of the reason,
    ATMANI,in the self,
    NIRANTARAM,incessantly,
    REMYATE (ITI)YAT,(in that) it finds joy,
    SAH YOGAH (ITI),that (as) yoga,
    YOGIBHIH SMRITAHA,is recognized by yogis.


    5. yato yato mano yati sada'tmani tatastatah
    niyamya yojayedetadyogo'yam yujyatmiha

    To which or which order (interest) the mind goes,
    From that or that other into the Self,
    Ever restraining it, it should be joined,
    In such Yoga here let it be united.

    MANAH,the mind,
    YATAH YATAH,from which or which other (interest),
    YATI,goes,
    TATAH TATAH,from that or that other,
    ETAT,this (the mind),
    NIYAMYA,having restrained,
    SADA,always,
    ATMANI,in the self,
    YOJAYET,should be joined,
    AYAM YOGAH,this is yoga,
    IHA,in this here, (yoga),
    YUJYATAM,let it be united (i.e.let it be joined,let samadhi be practiced)


    6. sarvanatakarah pumsam sankalpah kalpitaih saha
    unmulya vasanajalairyenamani nirudhyate

    Uprooting those incipient memory-factors of willing,
    The source of all human disasters, (he) who
    Together with their varied willed objects
    Restrains in the form of Self (saying):

    PUMSAM,for man,
    SARVA-ANARTHA-KARAH,which is the source of all
    disasters,
    SANKALPAH,willing,
    KALPITAIH,with the objects of wilful
    desire,
    VASAN-JALAIH SAHA,together with the various incipient memory factors belonging to the will,
    UNMULYA,uprooted,
    YENA,by whom,
    ATMANI,in the self,
    NIRUDHYATE,is restrained


    7. drsyasya na drso'stitvam ato drsyam drgatmakam
    iti yunjita drgrupe yah sa yogavidham varah

    "What is seen has no existence as such,
    "Thus what is seen is the seer's Self"-
    He among knowers of Yoga
    Is the most superior.

    DRSYASYA,in visible objects,
    NA ASTITVAM,there is no existence,
    DRISAH (ASTITVAM ASTI),it is the seer (that has existence),
    ATAH,thus,
    DRISYAM DRIGATMAKAM (BHAVATI),the seen is the form of the seer,
    ITI,thus,
    YAH,who,
    DRIGRUPE,in the form of the self
    YUNJITA, joins,
    SAH YOGAVIDAM VARAH,he is the knower of yoga

    8. yada piban mano bhrngah svanandamadhumadhurim
    na spandati vasikrtya yojito yogavayuna

    When the mind-bee drinking
    Of the nectar-sweetness of Self-bliss
    Is drawn into union with Yoga breeze
    And does not flutter, (Yoga takes place).

    YADA,when,
    YOGAVAYUNA,by the breeze of yoga,
    VASIKRITYA, being drawn to its side,
    YOJITAH,having attained to yoga union,
    MANO-BHRINGAH,the bee that is the mind,
    SVANANDA-MADHU-MADHURIM,the nectar sweetness of self-bliss,
    PIBAN,while enjoying,
    NA SPANDATI,does not flutter,
    (TADA YOGA SYAT),(then yoga takes place)


    9. dhyanamantantarbhruvordrstirjihvagram lambikordhvatah
    yada syatkhecari mudra nidralasyadinasini

    When meditation with gaze fixed between the eye-brows
    And the tongue-tip touching beyond the uvula (takes place)
    Then happens (khecari mudra) that space-freedom attitude
    Of drowsiness - and fatigue - dispelling capacity.

    YADA,when,
    BHRUVOH,of the two eyebrows,
    ANTAH,in the middle,
    DHYANAM DRISTIH (CA),meditation and gaze,
    LAMBIKA-URDHVATAH,placed beyond the uvula,
    JIHVAGRAM (CA),the tip of the tongue also,
    (SYAD),(takes place),
    JIHVAGRAM (CA),the tip of the tongue also,
    (SYAD),(takes place),
    YADA),(then),
    NIDRA-ALASYA-ADI-NASISNI,of sleep,fatigue etc., dispelling potency,
    SYAD,happens,
    KHECARI-MUDRA,an attitude enabling one to attain the freedom of space

    10. jnanam karmeti loke'smin dvidha yogah samasatah
    anayoryogavistarah sarvah parisamapyate

    As of wisdom or action, Yoga in this world
    Is of two kinds; and within these summarily
    The whole of the further elaboration of Yoga
    Is comprised conclusively.

    ASMIN LOKE,in this world,
    YOGAH,yoga,
    JNANAM KARMAITI, as of wisdom and action,
    SAMASATAH,in summary fashion,
    DVIDHA,in two kinds
    ,YOGAVISTARAH SARVAH,the whole of any further elaboration of yoga,
    ANAYOH,within these,
    PARISAMAPYATE,is comprised conclusively



    X. NIRVANA DARSANAM (VISION OF EMANCIPATION)

    1. nirvanam dvividham suddhamasuddham ceti tatra yat
    suddham nirvasanam tadvadasuddham vasananvitam

    Emancipation is of two kinds -
    What is pure and what is impure.
    What is without incipient memory-factors, that is pure,
    Likewise, what is qualified by incipient memory-factors is impure.

    NIRVANAM,emancipation (i.e. absorbtion),
    SUDDHAM-ASUDDHAM-CA-ITI,as pure and impure,
    DVIVIDHAM,of two kinds,
    TATRA,of these,
    YAT NIRVASANAM,what is without incipient memory factors,
    TAT SUDDHAM,that is pure,
    TADVAT,likewise,
    YAT-VASANA ANVITAM,what is qualified by incipient memory factors,
    (TAT) ASUDDHAM (CA BHAVATI),(that becomes) the impure


    2. atisuddham suddhamiti suddham ca dvividham tatha
    asuddhasuddhancasuddhamasuddhasuddhamucyate

    As pure and extra-pure,thus
    Are two kinds, likewise,
    The impure also as impure-pure
    And impure-impure is spoken of.

    SUDDHAM CA,the pure also,
    ATISUDDHAM-SUDDHAM ITI,(as) the extra-pure and the pure,
    DVIVIDHAM,of two kinds,
    TATHA,likewise,
    ASUDDHAM-CA,the impure also,
    ASUDDHA-SUDDHAM ASUDDHA ASUDDHAM (ITI DVIVIDHAM) UCHYATE,pure-impure and impure-impure are spoken of


    3. atisuddham tridha pascadvare caikam variyasi
    ekamekam varisthe'tha suddham brahmavidisthitam

    The extra-pure is again of three kinds -
    One is the elect, one is the more elect,
    One is the most elect - while the pure
    Exists in the (simple) knower of the Absolute.

    ATISUDDHAM,the extra-pure,
    PASCAT TRIDHA,again is of three kinds,
    EKAM VARE,one in the elect (knower of the absolute),
    EKAM VARIYASI,one in the more elect (superior knower of the absolute),
    EKAM VARISHTHE,one in the most elect (most superior knower of the
    absolute),
    STHA,while,
    SUDDHAM,the pure,
    BRAHMAVIDI CA STHITAM,exists in the (simple) knower of the absolute


    4. asuddhasuddham virajastamo'nyatsarajastamaha
    mumuksau prathamam vidyat dvitiyam siddhikamisu

    The impure - pure is without passion and inertia,
    - the other is with passion and inertia.
    The former as in one who desires liberation,
    While the latter as in one who desire psychic powers is to be known.

    ASUDDHA-SUDDHAM,the impure-pure,
    VIRAJAS-TAMAH,is without passion and inertia,
    ANYAT,the other (i.e. the impure-impure),
    SARAJAS-TAMAH,is with passion and inertia,
    PRATHAMAM,the former,
    MUMUKSHAU,(as) in one who desires liberation,
    DVITIYAM,the latter,
    SIDDHIKAMESU,(as) in those who desire psychic powers,
    VIDYAT,is to be known


    5. dagdhva jnanagnina sarvamuddisya jagatam hitam
    karoti vidhivatkarma brahmavidbrahmani sthitah

    Established in the Absolute, a knower of the Absolute,
    By the fire of wisdom having burnt everything up,
    Aiming at the good of the world,
    Performs action according to what is considered as right.

    BRAHMANI STHITAH,established in the absolute,
    BRAHMAVIT,a knower of the absolute,(i.e.a man who is emancipated while still alive),
    JNANAGNINA,by the fire of wisdom,
    SARVAM DAGDHVA,having burnt everything up,
    JAGATAM HITAM UDDISYA,aiming at the good of the world,
    VIDHIVAT KARMA KAROTI,performs actions according to what is considered as right


    6. samnasya sarvakarmani satatam brahmanisthaya
    yascaratyavanau dehayatrayai brahmavidvarah

    (He who) renouncing all action,
    Always established in the Absolute,
    Continues the course of the bodily life,
    In the world - (he) is the elect knower of the Absolute.

    YAH,he who,
    SARVA-KARMANI SAMNASYA,renouncing all action,
    SATATAM BRAHMANISHTHAYA,always established in the absolute,
    DEHA YATRA YAI,continuing the course of the daily life,
    AVANAU CARATI,wandering in the world,
    (SAH) BRAHMAVIDVARAH,(he) is the elect knower of the absolute


    7. anyena vedito vetti na vetti svayameva yah
    sa variyan sada brahmanirvanamayam asnute

    (He who) being informed by another is able to know,
    But (he) himself does not know-
    He is the more elect, who always
    Enjoys absorption in the Absolute.

    YAH,he (i.e. the the jivanmukta,or man attaining liberation while
    still alive,
    ANYENA VEDITAH,being informed by another,
    VETTI,is able to know,
    SVAYAM-EVA,then by himself,
    NA VETTI,does not know,
    SAH VARIYAN,he is the more elect,
    AYAM,such a one,
    SADA,always,
    BRAHMANIRVANAM,absorption in the absolute,
    ASNUTE,enjoys


    8. svayam na vetti kincinna vedito'pi tathaiva yah
    sa varisthah sada vrttisunyo'yam brahma kevalam

    (He who) by himself does not know anything,
    And even when made to know (knows) not -
    Such a one, always void of activity,
    The most elect, is the Absolute alone (in itself).

    YAH,he who,
    SVAYAM,by himself,
    KINCIT,anything,
    NA VETTI,does not know,
    TATHAIVA VEDITAH-API,and likewise even when made to know,
    NA (VETTI),(he) knows not,
    SA VARISHTHAH,he is the most elect,
    NYAM,such a one,
    VRITTI-SUNYAH,void of activity,
    KEVALAM BRAHMA,is the absolute alone (in himself)


    9. heyopadeyata nahyasya'tma va svaprakasakah
    iti matva nivartteta vrttirnavarttate punah

    Of this (world) there is certainly nothing to be accepted or rejected,
    As for the Self, it is self-luminous.
    Having understood (thus), one should withdraw (from all functionings),
    Thereafter, function does not repeat (itself).

    ASYA,of this (world),
    HEYA UPADEYATA,rejection or acceptance,
    NA-HI,certainly there is not,
    ATMA-VA,as for the self,
    SVA PRAKASAKAHA,it is self-luminous,
    ITI MATVA,having understood thus,
    NIVARTTETA,one should withdraw (from all activity),
    PUNAH,thereafter,
    VRITTIH,function,
    NA AVARTATE,does not repeat (itself)


    10. ekameva'dvitiyam brahmasti nanyanna samsayah
    iti vidvannivartteta dvaitannavartate punah.

    The one Absolute alone there is without a second,
    Nothing else there is, no doubt herein.
    Having thus understood, the well-instructed one
    From duality should withdraw, (he) does not return again.

    ADVITIYAM,without a second,
    BRAHMA EKAM-EVA (ASTI),one absolute alone (there is),
    NA ANYAT ASTI,nothing else there is,
    (ATRA) NA SAMSAYAH,(here) is no doubt,
    ITI MATVA,having thus understood,
    VIDVAN,the well-instructed one,
    (ATRA) NA SAMSAYAH,(here) is no doubt,
    ITI MATVA,having thus understood,
    VIDVAN,the well-instructed one,
    DVAITAT,from duality,
    NIVARTTETA,should withdraw,
    (SAH) PUNAH NA-AVARTTATE,(he) does not return again





    || ॐ तत् सत् ||






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    Re: दर्शनमाला- Darsana Mala-Nārāyana Guru (नारायण गुरु)

    Darsana Mala by Shri. Narayana Gurudevan (Translated by Nataraja Guru)


    DARSANA MALA (Only English text for easier reading)

    I. VISION BY SUPPOSITION

    In the beginning, there was
    Non-existence indeed!
    Dream-wise then again, by mere willing
    Everything existent created He, the Lord supreme.

    In the beginning, in the form of incipient memory factors,
    All this remained. Then the Lord,
    By his own power of false presentiment, like a magician,
    Created all this world of change.

    This world before creation was
    Latent within Himself,
    Thereafter, like a sprout from seed,
    From Himself, by His power, by itself it was created.

    The power, however, as of two kinds
    Is to be known, as the bright and the dark;
    There is no co-existence between these two,
    As with light and darkness.

    In the beginning, this world,
    Which was in the form of mind stuff, like a picture
    Achieved with all this picturesque variety,
    Like an artist, the Lord.

    Potentially, what even as Nature remained
    Like the psychic powers of Yoga-
    Like a Yogi did He, the Lord of the world, work out
    His varied psychic powers thereafter.

    When Self-knowledge shrinks,
    Then prevails nescience fearful;
    Ghost-like, taking name and form,
    In most terrible fashion looms here.


    Terrible and empty of content
    Like a city infernal,
    Even as such a marvel
    Did the Lord make the whole universe

    If from a sun in graded succession
    This world came; such was not the case at all.
    Presented as if out of slumber,
    At one stroke, all came to be.

    He from whom, like a fig tree as from seed
    Came out this world manifested -
    He is Brahma, He is Siva and Vishnu,
    He is the Ultimate, everything is He indeed.


    II. VISION BY NON-SUPPOSITION

    This world, which is both subtle and gross,
    And which has come to be from living consciousness,
    If existent, then everything is existent;
    If non-existent, then it exists as consciousness.

    Other than the cause, the effect cannot be,
    Therefore, all this is non-existent.
    Of what is non-existent, how can there be an origin?
    And of something unoriginated, how can there be re-absorption?

    To that which origin and dissolution is not,
    That is none other than the ultimate Absolute.
    That there is origin and re-absorption,
    By Maya`s confusion in the Self is supposed.

    Because of non-difference from cause,
    The effect, how could it have being?
    How could there be, for the same reason,
    For the cause also, any non-being?

    Being an effect, and thus non-existent,
    An existent cause there is; the world is thus not indeed.
    On the other hand, it is the Absolute alone that is existent,
    That dull minds mistake as non-existing.

    If one alone has reality,
    Another in it how could there be?
    If existence is posited in existence, tautology,
    And if non-existence is so asserted, contradiction comes.

    Dividing all parts one by one,
    Everything then is seen there
    As mind stuff alone, and as no other,
    As thus banishing Maya, relativity, far away.

    Thus, it is pure mind-stuff alone that shines,
    There is nothing, therefore, beyond pure mind-stuff at all.
    What does not shine is not real either,
    And what is not real does not shine indeed.

    High Value, bliss, alone exists and shines
    Therefore nothing else at all,
    Thus, everything is of the stuff of the High Value,
    And besides this High Value, nothing else exists.

    All is indeed existence-subsistence-value,
    Here in there is not even a little plurality.
    He who sees this as pluralistic,
    From death to death he goes.


    III. VISION OF NON-EXISTENCE


    All this world is of mind-stuff,
    The mind, however, is not anywhere.
    Therefore, like the blue and so on in the sky,
    The world is seen in the Self.

    By nescience, which is no other than the mind,
    All this world is a presentiment of the will.
    This nescience by knowledge gets reabsorped,
    Then the whole world becomes a mere configuration.

    Here, what a coward finds through darkness
    To be like a looming ghost,
    The same is seen to be by the wise
    Like a dream-world of a waking state.

    This visible world results from a willing presentiment.
    Where willing is present alone
    Is this visible world seen, not anywhere else,
    As a snake, too, when alone a rope is found.

    Between the will and the mind,
    There is no difference at all,
    That which is mind and called nescience and darkness,
    Like the magic of Indra, is a marvel.

    Like a mirage, to a wise man,
    The world looms in the Self,
    Just as to an infant, by confusion,
    A reflected image might real seem too.

    This Self, like milk that turns,
    Does not attain to another form.
    Therefore, the whole universe, as if created
    By Indra's magic,exists as an eidetic presentiment.

    Maya itself is the prime material cause
    Of the world, by that which is no other
    Than the Maya-maker, the Self, is all this
    Created, as various magical effects.

    To the mature mind, this universe
    Looms like a sky-forest in the Self -
    Even as an unreal puppet-form
    To a child would seem contrariwise.

    One alone is real, not a second,
    What is unreal, indeed, seems as being real.
    The Siva Lingam is stone itself,
    Not a second made by the mason.

    IV. VISION BY NEGATION

    What is not real, that is Negation,
    Which by itself, as by science-nescience,
    Transcendence-immanence, darkness and prime potency
    Of nature, in many forms looms.

    Just as for the origin of the pot the clay itself is
    In its non-being, so too before the origin of the world, as other than the world,
    What had no being as the Absolute itself,
    Such is Maya, the negative principle of indeterminate possibility.

    "The non-Self is unreal, the Self is real."
    Thus what looms is vidya, knowledge,
    As the reality of the snake appearance
    Superimposed on the rope-reality is understood.

    "The Self is unreal, the non-Self is real."
    Thus what looms is avidya, nescience indeed,
    As the erroneous cognition
    As between rope and snake.

    The senses, the mind, intelligence and the five
    Vital tendencies, what creates-
    That is the transcendent, indeed, even they being
    The subtle limbs of the reasoning self.

    Adopting as its own these limbs, the reasoning Self,
    By its own negative base of errror,
    Imagines itself as if happy or suffering,
    In truth, there is nothing at all.

    The objective data of the senses, which is the world,
    What emanates forth - that indeed,
    In the context of the Self, is the immanent,
    The basis of all gross presentiments of the will.

    As the ignorance about the mother-of-pearl
    Is the basis of the silver-presentiment,
    So too what in the Self is the basis of the world,
    That is known a darkness.

    Because of being that aspect of Maya which is a marvel,
    By containing all this universe like a tree in a seed,
    Or by virtue of its importance above others,
    This here is known as the prime potent power.

    By its own nature, because in a marvellous way
    It diversifies the three nature modalities,
    This aspect of Maya consisting of the three
    Modalities is well known as Nature.

    V. VISION OF CONSCIOUSNESS

    Present equally within and without,
    In constant bee-agitation,
    Consciousness is of two kinds-
    The generic and the specific.

    As the concrete, the subtle, the causal and the Absolute
    Basic consciousness is of four kinds,
    So these names even of basic consciousness
    Are also applicable to consciousness.

    Lo, here, "I am the body,this is the pot,"
    Depending on the concrete,
    What looms in consciousness,
    That is known as the concrete.

    Here, what is the consciousness of the body
    And the pot, that is the specific,
    Likewise too what is the consciousness of "I" or "this"
    Is known as the generic.

    The senses, mind, intellect, interest items
    And the five vital tendencies,
    By what are made conscious - that is known as the subtle.
    Because of dependence on the subtle.

    "I am ignorant: such a consciousness
    Is said to be the causal.
    Here, that aspect which stands for "I" is the generic,
    And the specific what stands for "am ignorant"

    "I am the Absolute." Thus what consciousness attains
    Is praised as the consciousness of the Absolute.
    Here, the element "I" is the generic,
    And "Absolute" is its specific attribute.

    Where consciousness exists, there the
    Object of consciousness exists, where
    Consciousness exists not, its object neither.
    Thus, both by agreement and difference, certitude comes.

    As with the eye which cannot see itself,
    So the Self does not see itself,
    Therefore indeed, the Self is not the object of consciousness.
    That which the Self sees is the object of consciousness.

    What is the object of consciousness, that is conditioned,
    What is unconditioned, that is not the object of consciousness.
    What is conditioned is non-existent,
    But what is unconditioned, itself THE EXISTENT IS THAT.

    VI. VISION OF ACTION

    It is indeed the Self, though self-luminous
    And detached, that through negativity
    Does action bearing many forms,
    Like the dream-agent in sleep.

    "I think, I speak, I grasp, I hear."
    In forms such as these are actions accomplished
    By the supreme Self, which is also
    The Self of pure reason and the senses.

    From the Self, not different from itself
    There exists a certain undefinable specificatory power
    By that power, all actions
    Are falsely attributed to the actionless Self.

    The Self is always detached indeed.
    One performs action as if attached due to ignorance.
    The wise man, saying "I do nothing,"
    Is not interested in action.

    The one Self alone as fire it burns,
    As wind it blows,
    As water it rains,
    As earth it supports and as a river it flows.

    The one Self alone, remaining actionless,
    Moves as upward and downward vital tendencies
    Within the nervous centres, indeed,
    It beats, murmurs and pulsates.

    Here in this visible world, as what exists,
    Grows, transforms, decreases and attains its end-
    As subject to six forms of becoming-
    That is no other than the actionless Self.

    By means of the inner organs and the senses
    Actions become Self-accomplished.
    However, the wise man knows,
    "I am the unattached, inner well-founded one"

    Because of being an object of experience,
    Even the "I" is a conditioning factor,
    Superimposed like the mother-of-pearl gleam.
    Above everything else, today and tomorrow one alone is.

    VII. VISION OF AWARENESS

    Awareness is one and unconditioned indeed,
    There is also the conditioned.
    Awareness without egoism etc.
    That is the unconditioned.

    That which is accompanied by egoism as if inside,
    And which again as qualified by this-ness is
    Accompanied by conscious activity,
    Such awareness is to be understood as conditioned.

    That by which are experienced all things
    Of the non-Self, such as egoism, etc.
    And even by which immortality is enjoyed,
    As the Witness, is Self-awareness.

    As innumerable effects of egoism,etc.
    What as pertaining to the non-Self
    Attains to awareness, that is said to be
    Awareness of the non-Self.

    Knowing things as they really are,
    As when one attains to the truth of the rope,
    What makes for such is true awareness,
    Wrong awareness is what is otherwise.

    By the very presence of which everything looms
    In consciousness by itself,
    That awareness is indicated as empirical awareness,
    And also as non-transcendental awareness.

    That function of awareness by which
    The means to an end is appraised,
    And which arises out of associative innate disposition,
    That is inferential awareness.

    On going near to an object to be ascertained,
    What - in the form of "this is the animal known by such marks"-
    Is the functional bassis for certitude,
    That is said to be analogical awareness.

    That awareness of "I" and "mine"
    And that other as "this" or "that"-
    The former as vital awareness, and the latter
    As sense awareness, is declared.

    Designated as AUM, THAT EXISTS,
    Attained to unity of Absolute and Self,
    Devoid of willing and other functions -
    That is said to be the ultimate awareness.

    VIII. VISION BY CONTEMPLATION

    Meditation of the Self is contemplation,
    Because the Self consists of bliss,
    A knower of the Self meditates by the Self,
    Upon the Self, for ever.

    The Absolute is meditated upon
    Because it consists of bliss.
    Constant meditation on the Absolute
    Is thus known as contemplation.

    It is even bliss that all do meditate,
    No one at all meditates suffering.
    That which is meditation of bliss,
    As contemplation it is thought.

    It is the Self alone that contemplates the Absolute;
    The knower of the Self meditates on the Self, and not on any other.
    That which is meditation on the Self
    Is said to be contemplation.

    Bliss, the Self and the Absolute
    Are said to be the names of this alone.
    In whom there is such sure awareness,
    He as a contemplative is well known.

    "I am Bliss, I am the Absolute, I am the Self."
    In whom, in such forms,
    There is always creative imagination,
    As a contemplative he is well known.

    The wife does not merely adore the husband,
    Nor the husband merely adore the wife,
    It is self-bliss alone that they adore,
    As lodged within every sensuous object.

    For the wise man who sees
    Thus at any place whatever,
    There is nothing at all other than Self-bliss.
    Such contemplation verily is the highest.

    Towards the Father of the World, to one`s
    Spiritual teacher, father, mother,
    Towards the Founders of Truth, and
    Towards those who walk in the same path;

    Towards those who put down evil,
    And those who do good to all -
    What sympathy there is, is devotion here,
    While what here belongs to the Self Supreme is the ultimate.

    IX. VISION OF MEDITATION

    That which always unites the mind
    With the reasoning Self, and also gets united with it,
    And which is in the form of restraint,
    That is praised as Yoga.

    Where the seer, the sight and the seen
    Are not present, there the heart
    Should be joined, as long as incipient
    memory-factors are present:

    All this consisting of name-form, knowing
    As verily the Absolute, the mind ever merges
    In the Absolute, what constitutes such,
    As Yoga is ascertained.

    The unbroken functioning of reason
    Which in the Self, like a streak of oil,
    Finds incessant joy - such as Yoga
    Is by Yogis recognized.

    To which or which order interest the mind goes,
    From that or that other into the Self,
    Ever restraining it, it should be joined,
    In such Yoga here let it be united.

    Uprooting those incipient memory-factors of willing,
    The source of all human disasters, he who
    Together with their varied willed objects
    Restrains in the form of Self saying:

    "What is seen has no existence as such,
    "Thus what is seen is the seer's Self"-
    He among knowers of Yoga
    Is the most superior.

    When the mind-bee drinking
    Of the nectar-sweetness of Self-bliss
    Is drawn into union with Yoga breeze
    And does not flutter, Yoga takes place.

    When meditation with gaze fixed between the eye-brows
    And the tongue-tip touching beyond the uvula takes place
    Then happens that space-freedom attitude
    Of drowsiness and fatigue - dispelling capacity.

    As of wisdom or action, Yoga in this world
    Is of two kinds; and within these summarily
    The whole of the further elaboration of Yoga
    Is comprised conclusively.

    X. VISION OF EMANCIPATION

    Emancipation is of two kinds -
    What is pure and what is impure.
    What is without incipient memory-factors that is pure,
    Likewise, what is qualified by incipient memory-factors is impure.

    As pure and extra-pure, thus
    Are two kinds, likewise,
    The impure also as impure-pure
    And impure-impure is spoken of.

    The extra-pure is again of three kinds -
    One is the elect, one is the more elect,
    One is the most elect - while the pure
    Exists in the simple knower of the Absolute.

    The impure - pure is without passion and inertia,
    - the other is with passion and inertia.
    The former as in one who desires liberation,
    While the latter as in one who desire psychic powers is to be known.

    Established in the Absolute, a knower of the Absolute,
    By the fire of wisdom having burnt everything up,
    Aiming at the good of the world,
    Performs action according to what is considered as right.

    He who renouncing all action,
    Always established in the Absolute,
    Continues the course of the bodily life,
    In the world - he is the elect knower of the Absolute.

    He who being informed by another is able to know,
    But he himself does not know-
    He is the more elect, who always
    Enjoys absorption in the Absolute.

    He who by himself does not know anything,
    And even when made to know, knows not -
    Such a one, always void of activity,
    The most elect, is the Absolute alone in itself.

    Of this world there is certainly nothing to be accepted or rejected,
    As for the Self, it is self-luminous.
    Having understood thus, one should withdraw from all functionings,
    Thereafter, function does not repeat itself.

    The one Absolute alone is without a second,
    Nothing else there is, no doubt herein.
    Having thus understood, the well-instructed one
    From duality should withdraw, he does not return again



    || ॐ तत् सत् ||

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