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Thread: Patañjali's sutras

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    Patañjali's sutras

    hari o
    ~~~~~~

    namaste


    I thought to start a conversation on the various sūtra-s of atañjali-s yogadarśana (the yoga sūtra-s of patañjali) other then yama and niyama, which we have an abundance of HDF posts.

    There is great wisdom that is offered. But why did Patañjali-ji talk in stitches ( sūtra ) ? Simply to minimize clutter as I see it. Words tend to cause mischief when used in abundance i.e. multiple interpretations and the like. So, Patañjali and others took to the method of brevity-in-truth.

    Let me offer an idea or two this is based upon the 2nd ūtra ,samādhi-pāda ( 1st chapter,). Patañjali-muni defines yoga in the following manner:
    yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ
    • yogaś - process of yoking; union from 'yuj'
    • citta - as a noun it is thinking , reflecting , imagining , thought; some put this as active mind
    • vṛtti - ' rolling , or rolling down' i.e. patterning, turnings, movements.
    • nirodhaḥ - suppression , destruction ; some prefer stilling, cessation, restriction

    My view
    Yoga is the stilling (nirodhaḥ) of the active (vṛtti) mind (citta).

    What others say:

    Yoga happens when there is stilling (in the sense of continual and vigilant watchfulness) of the movement of thought - without which there is no movement. Svāmi Venkatesānanda (śiṣya of Svāmi Śivānanda)

    Yoga occurs when the field of consciousness is liberated from its patterned spinnings. Then the mind rests in clarified stillness devoid of any conditioned bias - Śakti Das (a.k.a. sahaj yogi)

    Yoga is the suppression of the modifications of the mind. - Yogāchārya Svāmi Hariharānanda Āraṇa

    Why is this fruitful to do? the next 2 sūtra-s tell us why... Let me offer them in very plain words that I find appealing.

    - stilling of the active mind - 2nd sūtra
    - ( allows the ) SELF to stay/abide in its true, original unperturbed form - 3rd sūtra
    - Otherwise it adopts the form of the mind's activities - 4th sūtra

    IMHO one practicing various techniques that experiences this silence, would appreciate the idea offered in sūtra's 2 through 4.

    This Self is so infinite, so nimble, it easily adapts to any 'container'. Just as a fluid takes the shape of its container then one says ' Oh this Self must be the glass, or the jar or the ern'. Yet this Self is
    so flexible any possible configuration becomes a perfect fit each time.

    So this 4th sūtra helps us better understand this notion: The Self (Awareness itself) takes on the form of the mind - it's thoughts,
    observations, dialog, etc. Why so?
    In my opinion because of its innocence. This Awareness is so much apart of us that we do not see it. How can we? Awareness is the eye of the eye, the ear of the ear. That is, it does the perceiving says the upaniṣad-s. That is why there is so much attention to nirodhaḥ. If we give the mind a chance to settle down and just be, then what shines though is awareness itself (Self).

    praām
    Last edited by satay; 25 March 2015 at 09:58 AM.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  2. #2

    Re: Patajalis sūtra-s

    Quote Originally Posted by yajvan View Post
    hari o
    ~~~~~~


    Let me offer an idea or two this is based upon the 2nd ūtra ,samādhi-pāda ( 1st chapter,). Patañjali-muni defines yoga in the following manner:
    yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ
    • yogaś - process of yoking; union from 'yuj'
    • citta - as a noun it is thinking , reflecting , imagining , thought; some put this as active mind
    • vṛtti - ' rolling , or rolling down' i.e. patterning, turnings, movements.
    • nirodhaḥ - suppression , destruction ; some prefer stilling, cessation, restriction
    My view
    Yoga is the stilling (nirodhaḥ) of the active (vṛtti) mind (citta).

    praām
    Yajvan Jee -
    I find, this definition of Yoga to be quite deep. In this - the words Yoga and Vritti (disturbance, that you call active) is fairly well understood. It is Chitta that confuses me.
    Metaphorically, let us say that water in the pond is Chitta. What we observe are the reflections of existence. Vrittis are the waves, the disturbances, that blur this vision. Simply speaking, an agitated mind does not see, hear, observe the whole. Yoga helps us diminish, and remove the Vrittis, and help us observe better.
    Question that I have, what actually is Chitta? Which layer of our existence sits on it?
    Yoga Vasistha talks about - Bhutakasha, Chittakasha, chidakasha. Is it the middle Akasha in this? If this is so, how does it bring about the union?
    How can I person observe own Chitta? When I close my eyes, and let us say thoughts die down, is it Chittakasha that is being observed?

    HariH Om!

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    Re: Patajalis sūtra-s

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namast harekrishna.

    Quote Originally Posted by harekrishna View Post
    Yajvan Jee -
    Question that I have, what actually is Chitta? Which layer of our existence sits on it?
    Yoga Vasistha talks about - Bhutakasha, Chittakasha, chidakasha. Is it the middle Akasha in this? If this is so, how does it bring about the union?

    How can I person observe own Chitta? When I close my eyes, and let us say thoughts die down, is it Chittakasha that is being observed?
    HariH Om!
    Much can be said about this .
    citta is rooted in cit - is a 'piling up'. It is considered consciousness, yet awareness ( applied Consciousness) is the definition I appreciate. as in ṛta-ct - 'knowing' . There is is active knowing, and pure knowing. There is active consciousness ( awareness) and there is pure consciousness, Being, some too call pure Awareness.
    And we note that cit is rooted in ci - to collect , gather together , accumulate , acquire for one's self.

    Yet how does one get to a definition of Pure Consciousness? The cit in the feminine gender is defined as pure Thought a.k.a. Pure Consciousness, Pure Awareness a.k.a brahman.
    And this idea of applied consciousness ? Consider ctati or cttā to perceive , fix the mind upon , attend to , be attentive , observe , take notice of i.e. we are using consciousness as 'awareness' - being aware of.


    We are not done discussing this part, and more inspection and discussion is needed to bring out more light on this matter. More will be added on your most appropriate questions you offer. Various posts on citta are available on this subject:
    http://www.hindudharmaforums.com/showthread.php?t=3539&highlight=chitta

    http://www.hindudharmaforums.com/showthread.php?t=4470&page=2&highlight=chitta

    That said, let me offer the following:

    Regarding experience of this citta, in one's yoga there are two flavors:
    • saṃprajāta (saṃ+pra+jāta) samādhi - the mind is not fully absorbed ( many like to call this not fully 'arrested')
      • And therefore sātatya gamane - or who comes and goes, always in movement.
    • asaṃprajāta (a+saṃ+pra+jāta) samādhi - the mind is fully absorbed , and some call objectless samādhi
    Vaśiṣṭa speaking to king karaka ( of janaka's race) - mahābhārata , śānti parva ( or parvan division or section). This IMHO is equal to asaṃprajāta:

    When men of knowledge, conversant with the rules of yoga, become as fixed (steady) as a stake of wood, and as immovable as a mountain then they are said to be in yoga. When one does not hear , and smell, and taste, and see ; when one is not conscious of any touch; when one's mind becomes perfectly free from every purpose; when one's mind becomes perfectly free from every thought, then is one called the wise to be in perfect yoga.

    praṇām

    words
    • sātatya सातत्य - consistency, uninterruptedness
    • gamane or gama गम - going, marching, flightiness, going away from
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

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    Re: Patañjali's sūtra-s

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté harekrishna (et.al),


    you mention,
    Yoga Vasistha talks about - Bhutakasha, Chittakasha, chidakasha. Is it the middle Akasha in this? If this is so, how does it bring about the union?
    How can I person observe own Chitta? When I close my eyes, and let us say thoughts die down, is it Chittakasha that is being observed?

    If we use Yogavasișțharāmāyaṇa, also known as the Yoga Vasișțha, as our reference for this conversation cid-ākāśa is infinite consciousness. So if you have your eyes closed and ask, am I viewing this cid-ākāśa
    the answer is yes-and-no.


    Yes, because all consciousness is part and parcel of this cid-ākāśa. Yet the answer is 'no' because you are localizing it by evaluating, saying ' is this it ?'. That makes the infinite finite.
    Here's is the pickle. If you are looking to see this cid-ākāśa as an object to experience how can you because it (cid-ākāśa) is also the perceiver. It supplies the awareness as the tool for you to experience life. 'Awareness' becomes sight, smell, taste, feel, etc. as it is applied to the senses. Another form of IT is the intellect. See my point?


    So this expansiveness of consciousness is experienced by being it. Settling the mind down to such an extent that one is in asaṃprajñāta (a+saṃ+pra+jñāta¹) samādhi - the mind is fully absorbed , and some call objectless samādhi. In this case there are no boundaries and this cid-ākāśa is experienced on its level of unbounded awareness.

    But the caution again is it is not some other part of you looking at this unbounded awareness because the looker ( Some call the seer) Is the SAME as what is being seen. There is no 2 - perceiver and perceived are one.

    Two points of discussion
    A few things need to be discussed... how does one experience this without the eyes being closed? We must note this is possible and it is the intent of the śāstra-s to discuss / explain this level of functioning.
    Hence - yoga. Patañjali’s yogadarśana (the yoga sūtra-s of patañjali) when exercised and taught by a capable instructor ( guru, muni, etc) is designed to groom the nervous system to function in this manner. That is, to have daily activity without losing the silence of the SELF. This comes with His grace.

    The other point we must consider:
    The upaniṣads say the Self realizes itSelf to itSelf. We find this reiewed in the kaṭha and muṇḍaka upaniṣads. So what to do if this happens , what are we suppose to do? Prepare.
    We prepare the soil just like the farmer does so a rich harvest can take place. We are that soil. Our actions are the seeds we drop in. The water is our behavior. Our meditations is our yajñya. The sprout that begins is one's more rested composure and point of view, more relaxed and insightful. The fertilizer we use is the knowledge from the śāstra-s and āgama-s.

    The bhadarayaka upaniad gives us some advice as yajñavalkya-muni speaks to his wife:
    O' maitreyi this Self is to be properly heard of; to be properly cogitated upon and to be realized in meditation.

    Yajñavalkya-muni points to 3 things worthy for this preparation:
    • śravaṇa - the act of hearing or 'that which is heard' = śruti iti śravaṇāt , 'because it is so heard or revealed'
    • manana - thinking , reflection , thought , intelligence , understanding
    • nidīdhyāsana - or nidī + dhyāna + āsana = to shine down upon + meditation + seat or posture.
      Hence the posture of meditation that brings one light and luste, luminance, brillance.

    To return back to Patañjali’s yogadarśana his attention is on knowledge and experience yet IMHO it is greatly focused on this nidīdhyāsana approach . We will talk more about this in a future post:
    dhyāna, dhāraṇa, samādhi and saṁyama.

    praṇām
    Last edited by yajvan; 04 October 2016 at 06:00 PM.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

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    Re: Patajalis sūtra-s

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté
    I offered the 2nd sūtra of patañjali’s yogadarśana :

    yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ
    yogaś - process of yoking; union from 'yuj'
    citta - as a noun it is thinking , reflecting , imagining , thought; some put this as active mind
    vṛtti - ' rolling , or rolling down' i.e. patterning, turnings, movements.
    nirodhaḥ - suppression , destruction ; some prefer stilling, cessation, restriction

    My view
    Yoga is the stilling (nirodhaḥ) of the active (vṛtti) mind (citta).
    Before we can advance on this matter, one must ask,
    What are the other conditions/states of the mind that can occur in-or-out of one's sādhana (meditation, upāya, etc) ?
    • kṣipta - " scattered " , distraction or absence of mind ; thrown , cast , sent , dispatched , dismissed
    • mūḍha - stupefied , bewildered , perplexed , confused , uncertain or at a loss about
    • vikṣipta - sent , dispatched i.e. being dispersed in different places
    • ekāgra - one-pointed , having one point , fixing one's attention upon one point or object , closely attentive , intent , absorbed
    • nirodhaḥ - suppression , destruction ; some prefer stilling, cessation, restriction
    Lets review the 4, the 5th nirodhaḥ I think has been reviewed substantially.
    • This kṣipta state is that of much distraction, absence of attention, the mind flies here and there on a whim, a smell
      a sight, a sound. There is maximum fluctuations that exist in one's thought process and the ability to settle down
      is a challenge.
    • Another state is that of mūḍha - bewildered , and a state of confusion. Here too the mind is challenged for settling down.
      Some say the mind may be stupefied with family issues, money, the pursuit of wealth and hence the ability to forgo these thoughts for subtler notions is a struggle.
    The remaining 3 will be addressed in the next post - as the mind begins to gain discipline ( but not in full) with vikṣipta

    praṇām

    references
    My reference for this knowledge:
    • patañjali’s yogadarśana by śakti das (a.k.a. sahaj yogi)
    • Yoga Philosophy of patañjali by sakhya yogāchārya svāmi hariharānanda āraa (Founder of the Kāpila Monastery);
    • Personal experiences, study , etc.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

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    Re: Patajalis sūtra-s

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté

    Lets review the 4, the 5th nirodhaḥ I think has been reviewed substantially.
    • This kṣipta state is that of much distraction, absence of attention, the mind flies here and there on a whim, a smell
      a sight, a sound. There is maximum fluctuations that exist in one's thought process and the ability to settle down
      is a challenge.
    • Another state is that of mūḍha - bewildered , and a state of confusion. Here too the mind is challenged for settling down.
      Some say the mind may be stupefied with family issues, money, the pursuit of wealth and hence the ability to forgo these thoughts for subtler notions is a struggle.
    The 3rd condition is vikṣipta - sent , dispatched i.e. being dispersed in different places. We need to note that this 3rd condition is right in the middle ( madhya) of the 5. Two below it and two above it. This is significant as it indicates the type of condition. The mind at times can be absorbed and calm, and other times not. The mind goes from calm to restless.

    Many who practice their sādhana ,meditation, upāya are familiar with this experience. One can be at deep peace and steadiness within their meditation. In activity some of that steadiness is infused into one's actions, but still there is restlessness that returns. It is from this stage that one can advance to more steadiness. Like adding dye to a sheet. The dye is added then put in the sun to dry - some of the dye fades with the brightness of the sun. Like that is altering between one's meditation then going into the sun ( activity) takes some of the color away, yet the dye begins to stabilize over time and 'stays-fast' in time. One then is able to proceed to the next level or condition:
    ekāgra - one-pointed , having one point , fixing one's attention upon one point or object , closely attentive , intent , absorbed .

    This one pointedness in meditation is called out by patañjali-muni where one thought, idea, sound, mantra remains in the aspirants awareness. When it fades it is still replaced by the same thought, idea, sound, etc. - the same thought arises, hence consistency remains. It is said when one-pointedness is effortless it leads to saṃprajñāta (saṃ+pra+jñāta&#185 samādhi - the mind is not fully absorbed ( many like to call this not fully 'arrested') yet progress has been made.

    We have talked of the 5th condition that of nirodhaḥ - suppression , destruction ; some prefer stilling, cessation, restriction .
    The mind has been considered in an arrested state, absorbed. Randomness of thoughts, scattering, etc. are no longer active, one is absorbed in yoga. This some call nirvīja or nir + vīja; nir = nis = ' without' , 'destitute of' , 'free from' + vīja = bīja = seed, any germ , element , primary cause or principle. Hence the mind is without see or germ.

    But what does that mean? It ( the mind) is calm, silent, steady with no 'seed' to sprout kṣipta - ' scattered' , mūḍha - 'stupefied , bewildered , perplexed'. Some say the mind is no more. Others say it is totally devoid of any afflictions called kliṣṭa-s i.e. torment , afflicted , distressed. The mind is free from the 'seeds of disturbance' and hence from the 3 guna-s.


    When this is in total bloom ( as some can go in and out of this state and have a flavor of it) it is considered kaivalya in this yogadarśana
    and also in saṁkhya philosophy. It is defined as emancipation, perfect isolation , detachment from all other connections , detachment of the soul from matter or further trans-migrations.


    The Self resides in itSelf. Note there is another way of spelling this word kaivalya, as kevala. It means alone , only , mere , sole , one , excluding others and also the absolute unity of spirit i.e. absorbed in the Self.

    praṇām
    Last edited by yajvan; 26 June 2010 at 02:52 PM.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  7. #7

    Re: Patajalis sūtra-s

    Quote Originally Posted by yajvan View Post
    hariḥ oṁ


    citta is rooted in cit - is a 'piling up'. It is considered consciousness, yet awareness ( applied Consciousness) is the definition I appreciate. as in ṛta-ct - 'knowing' . There is is active knowing, and pure knowing. There is active consciousness ( awareness) and there is pure consciousness, Being, some too call pure Awareness.
    And we note that cit is rooted in ci - to collect , gather together , accumulate , acquire for one's self.
    HariH Om!
    I went through the older threads, and there is a lot of information. This is excellent. My understanding also improves with this. Here is a POV.

    Yoga Vasishtha says -
    चित्ताकाशम चिदाकाशम आकाशम च तृतीयकम ।
    द्वाभयम शून्यतरम विधि चिदाकाशम वराणने ॥
    Swami Venkateshanand translates this as "There are three types of spaces - the physical space (bhutakasha), the psychological space (chittakasha) and the consciousness space (chidakasha). Of these most subtle is the infinite space of consciousness"

    I want to stress the difference between chitta ( चित्त ) and chit(चित) . All existence is vibrations. Some vibrations are gross such as matter, while some are yet finer such as light rays. All these vibrations are occuring in a field (called Akasha). Among the three akasha, the existence in physical space is easy to see - that of body and prana. Conscious space is infinite and not describable. Gita talks about the wonders that one has with relation to this space. All duality ends here, the experience is that of wonder, pleasure.

    There is the middle space - the psychological space. This is important because it connects the two fields. In this space, lie the inner vibrations (अंत: करण ) which are mind, intellect and ego. (मन, बुद्धि , अहंकार)
    The vibration in this space is due to Vaasana and Sanskara, triggered by the experiences of the Indriyas. These vibrations are Vritties. Yoga so succintly puts it to stop it. But it is not easy. Because if this were to stop, one immediately becomes a Janaka, not affected by the duality of the existence.

    Hare Krishna

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    Re: Patajalis sūtra-s

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~


    namast

    Quote Originally Posted by harekrishna View Post
    HariH Om!
    I Yoga Vasishtha says -
    चित्ताकाशम चिदाकाशम आकाशम च तृतीयकम ।
    द्वाभयम शून्यतरम विधि चिदाकाशम वराणने ॥
    Swami Venkateshanand translates this as "There are three types of spaces - the physical space (bhutakasha), the psychological space (chittakasha) and the consciousness space (chidakasha). Of these most subtle is the infinite space of consciousness"

    I want to stress the difference between chitta ( चित्त ) and chit(चित) . All existence is vibrations.
    well said.

    praṇām
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

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    Re: Patajalis sūtra-s

    hari o
    ~~~~~~

    namasté

    This post brings out some of the knowledge found in sūtra-s 8 & 48.

    I have wondered about the phrase ' that makes sense'. Let me explain.
    When we say that makes sense it infers in a colloquial way ( a familiar style ) that something is acceptable in logic, being reasonable or even comprehensible. Why do we align this with the senses i.e. perception done via the ears, nose, eyes, hands , etc. ?

    The senses are the transmitters of the world around us. They in turn deliver what they perceive to the mind, intellect and heart. It is the role of the intellect (buddhi) to discriminate, reason, judge or discern the data/information that is presented to it, the senses do not discern anything, so how can they 'make sense'?

    Here is my point - what 'makes sense' depends on how much one's intellect has developed, how much it (buddhi) has been honed, shaped, exercised or developed. That is, how viveka (discrimination) without vimala ( without stain) has blossomed in one's awareness.This viveka faculty distinguishes and classifies things, knowledge, perception according to their real properties.

    Before this viveka is fully developed perceptions are filtered, influenced by likes, dislikes, prejudices, that taint clear understanding.
    Patañjali-muni calls this out in the 8th sūtra as viparyaya -transposition , change , alteration , inverted order or succession , opposite or false knowledge. They say this viparyaya ( filters as I call 'em) has 5 parts :
    • tamas or mental darkness , ignorance , illusion , error
    • asmitā ego or excessive ego
    • moha , infatuation , delusion , bewilderment , perplexity , distraction
    • mahāmoha - extreme attachment
    • tāmisra ' nightwalker', a rākṣasa or ~the fear of death~
    Look at the challenge we have with viparyaya-s . How can we really see and comprehend clearly i.e. truth. Some call these viparyaya-s kleśa-s (pain , affliction , distress , pain from disease , anguish) and we can see why.

    Yet there is a state of ultimate discriminative knowledge called viveka-khyāti ( khyāti =renown, fame , celebrity + viveka = discrimination).
    It is talked about as ṛtambharā prajñā - luminous wisdom that is carried out , brought out, some may say sung out. It is knowledge with no hint of viparyaya ( the filters). The 48th sūtra reads this way:

    ṛtambharā tatra prajñā
    Supreme Truth (ṛtambharā) inner wisdom (prajñā) rises, and prevails in that place (tatra)
    That is, a level of consciousness that only sees the truth. The wise also call this full of unalloyed Truth. One's awareness holds truth, sees truth, with no trace of misconception.

    This ṛtambharā happens when one gains proficiency; This proficiency can be called pure consciousness, yet the technical term used by patañjali-muni is nirvichāra¹.
    Just think how practical this is for the individual to exercise this? I can only think what good can come from this in being a teacher, a councilor, an advisor, scientist, etc.

    praām

    words
    1. nirvichāra - If the reader has interest, this is the subject matter found in Chapter 1 (samādhi pada and is part of 4 samāpati's or engrossments of the mind).
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

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    Re: Patajalis sūtra-s

    hariḥ oṁ
    ~~~~~~

    namasté


    I wrote here: http://www.hindudharmaforums.com/sho...9&postcount=12
    Then vyāsa-ji says the following - engulfed within the dharma of ahiṁsā is every other duty and observance. He who forswears ( swears off) the religion of injury (called tikśnaṁ tanuṁ&#185 succeeds in attaining mokṣa whence is the assurance of harmlessness to all creatures.

    Within the mahābhārata the ṛṣi tulādhāra ( tulā+dhāraḥ - who possesses or upholds balance, even-ness ) talked of ahiṁsā. He says, there is no duty superior to the duty of abstention from injuring other creatures. Of all gifts the assurance of harmlessness to creatures is the highest ( point of merit).

    The benefit here as I read it is very profound on a few levels, as tulādhāra-ji suggests the following:
    They that are seeking ordinary happiness practice this duty of universal harmlessness for the sake of fame; they that are truly skilled practice the same for the sake of attaining brahma. What ever fruit one enjoys by tapas or by yajña or practicing liberality (giving, generosity and broad-mindedness), by speaking the truth and by heeding wisdom may all be had by practicing the dharma of ahiṁsā.


    Now what is most interesting to me is within patañjali’s yogadarśana, the 3rd chapter called vibhūti pāda, calls out various siddhi-s or perfections. He calls out in the 23rd ( some may have this as the 24th ) sūtra:

    maitryādiśu balāni
    maitrī = friendliness + ādiśu = aim or intent ( some say 'and the others') + balāni = powers, strengths

    This formula¹ says the power (balāni) of friendliness is the intent (ādiśu) by practicing saṁyama¹ on friendliness ( maitrī ) and others (ādiśu).
    This 'and others' means other virtues like compassion, goodwill, harmlessness (ahiṁsā ) etc. Note that since this is a sūtra the words 'by practicing saṁyama' is implied
    as this is defined in the initial instruction of this 3rd chapter itself.

    Hence one can increase the quality of universal harmlessness and friendliness offered to all creatures via ones sādhana, in this case patañjali’s yogadarśana where
    he calls out the qualities of yama and niyama as part of the sādhana of yoga. It is a very profound and far reaching approach to improving society overall .

    praṇām

    words

    the 23rd sūtra is a formula , and is practiced via the approach called saṁyama. There are multiple HDF posts regarding saṁyama, yet let me offer a POV.
    • saṁyama (संयम) defined by Monier Williams Dictionary is considered holding together , restraint , control; concentration of mind. Yet I find this a 'clinical' definition, devoid of practice or experience. The sense of control maybe mis-leading to many. The word control comes with the following: dominate, command, to hold in check and more extremely to eliminate or prevent the flourishing or spread ( like in controlling a forest fire perhaps).
    • I not a fan of the word 'control' as it suggests effort. With effort expended saṁyama becomes a fleeting idea that one does not capture. This saṁyama is more towards the notion of holding together, gently, then 'restraining or controlling' . It's a very delicate thing that happens when practiced.
    • If I had to define it i.e. the Monier Williams Dictionary offer, I would not do much better then their entry, but would add one operative word, formula. This saṁyama is the formula for (gently and with minimum effort) holding together dhāraṅā, dhyāna, and samādhi within the field of consciousness.
    Last edited by yajvan; 26 November 2010 at 01:33 PM.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

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