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Thread: Gayatri Mahatmya

  1. #31
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    Re: Gayatri Mahatmya

    pages 38-40 (concluding part)
    The method of doing japam

    japam is repeating a mantra. It is of three kinds.

    उत्तमं मानसं जप्यमुपांशुर्मध्यमः स्मृतः ।
    अधमं वाचिकं प्राहुः सर्वमन्त्रेषु वै द्विजाः ॥

    uttamaM mAnasaM japyamupAMshurmadhyamaH smRutaH |
    adhamaM vAchikaM prAhuH sarvamantreShu vai dvijAH ||

    "The superior way is to chant (the mantra) in mind. To chant it with lip movement but not producing any sound is intermediate. To read it aloud is inferior. The twice-born thus say it of all mantras."

    • Some mantras must be recited when there is desire towards its results. Some mantras can be recited only certain people. If some are not recited, pApa--sin, will arise. But then the gAyatrI can be recited by people of all Ashramas--stages of life (bachelor, householder, abstainers and renunciates).

    • About the count of chanting

    ब्रह्मचारी गृहस्थाश्च शतमष्टोत्तरं जपेत् ।
    वानप्रस्थो यतिश्चैव जपेदष्टसहस्रकम् ॥

    brahmachArI gRuhasthAshcha shatamaShTottaraM japet |
    vAnaprastho yatishchaiva japedaShTasahasrakam ||

    "The bachelor and the householder should chant it (the GAyatrI mantra) 108 times (a day). The abstainer remaining in the household and the wandering renunciate should chant it 1008 times (a day)."

    • About doing the japam itself

    असंख्यातं तु यज्जप्तं तत्सर्वं स्यात्रिरर्थकम् ।
    पर्वभिस्तु जपः कार्यो नाङ्गुलीनां निपातनैः ॥

    asaMkhyAtaM tu yajjaptaM tatsarvaM syAtrirarthakam |
    parvabhistu japaH kAryo nA~ggulInAM nipAtanaiH ||

    "There is no prayojanam--use, for the japam done without a count. Instead of shaking the fingers, the japam should be done using the knuckles of the fingers."

    • Since it is prescribed in this way, the japam should be done either using the finger knuckles or a japamAlA--rosary.
    http://www.hindudharmaforums.com/att...3&d=1287891976

    • The prescription that saMnyAsis--renunciates can chant the gAyatrI mantra is indicated to apply only to the three kinds of saMnyAsis: kuTIchaka--hut-dwelling mendicants, bahUdaka--mendicant who begs for his food, and haMsa--wandering mendicants; and not for the parahaMsa saMnyAsis who meditate only on the Atman and do no saguNa upAsana--attributive worship.

    [More details about the four kinds of saMnyAsis are found in the bhikShuka upaniShad, whose translation is given here:
    http://www.advaita.it/library/bhikshuka.htm --sd]

    The paramahaMsa saMnyAsam is the highest of the four kinds. The paramahaMsa saMnyAsis don't wear the sacred thread or the tuft of hair, and they carry one only staff--daNDa. The paramahaMsa saMnyAsis, since they have only the terms relating to the Atman for meditation and do no saguNa upAsana, how can they be included (in the group that can chant the GAyatrI)?

    • The gAyatrI proper should never be chanted in isolation. It is mentioned

    प्रणवस्याहृतियुतां गायत्री वै जपेत्ततः ।
    praNavasyAhRutiyutAM gAyatrI vai japettataH |

    "The gAyatrI should be chanted with the praNava--AUM and the vyAhRutis--sacred utterances related to manifest worlds."

    • The gAyatrI is prescribed to be chanted as nitya-karma--daily religious routine and in prAyashchittam--atonement.

    • Besides, the gAyatrI mantra is there for us to attain all that we desire. The sUta-saMhitA says

    बहुनोक्तन किं विप्राः जपेनास्याश्च होमतः ।
    अभीष्टं सर्वमाप्नोति नात्र सन्देहकारणम् ॥

    bahunoktana kiM viprAH japenAsyAshcha homataH |
    abhIShTaM sarvamApnoti nAtra sandehakAraNam ||

    "Hey brAhmaNas! What is there to accomplish with so much explanation? If the homam is done by the gAyatrI mantram, one will get whatever he desieres. There is no doubt about it."

    [The English translation of the Tamizh-translated publication of the essay blessed to us by the Jagadguru shrI Abhinava VidyAtIrtha mahAsvAmigaL--sd)

    *** *** ***
    (to continue...)
    Last edited by saidevo; 15 September 2011 at 01:49 AM.
    रत्नाकरधौतपदां हिमालयकिरीटिनीम् ।
    ब्रह्मराजर्षिररत्नाढ्यां वन्दे भारतमातरम् ॥

    To her whose feet are washed by the ocean, who wears the Himalayas as her crown, and is adorned with the gems of rishis and kings, to Mother India, do I bow down in respect.

    --viShNu purANam

  2. #32
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    Re: Gayatri Mahatmya

    Paraphrased from the book shrI gAyatrI mahA mantra sAram
    by S.S.RAghavAchAryAr

    pages 1-14

    जन्मना जायते सूद्रः संस्काराद् भवेद् द्विजः ।
    वेदपाठाद् भवेद् विप्र ब्रह्म जनातिति ब्राह्मणः ॥

    janmanA jAyate sUdraH saMskArAd bhaved dvijaH |
    vedapAThAd bhaved vipra brahma janAtiti brAhmaNaH ||
    --mahAbhArata, shAnti parva, section 188

    "By birth, one is a sUdra. By training of saMskAra, one will become twice-born. By study of the Vedas, one becomes a learned man, and one who knows brahman is a brahmana."

    This shloka highlights the importance of the upanayana saMskAram--investiture of the sacred thread, to the men of the trivarNa--three classes, viz. brAhmaNa, kShatriya, vaishya.

    • The adhikAram--authority, to enter the adhyAtmika mArgam--path of Self-Realization is obtained only after this ceremony. The twice-born also gets elibigle to chant, learn and study the Vedas and do puja to the deities.

    • The second adhyAtmika birth is obtained after the bhUta--physical birth by the men of the three classes only after they are given upadesham--instructions, on the mahA mantram gAyatrI.

    SAyaNAcharya explains the meaning of the gAyatrI mantra as below:

    "SavitA kindles the intellect in us. She is the one who is prasiddha--well know, in the shruti. She is the one who imbues the prakAsha--brightness in us. We do dhyAnam--meditation of that celebrated divine light of Parameshvara who creates the world."

    • The svarUpas--forms, the gAyatrI mantra takes are: ekapAda, dvipAda, tripAda and chatushpAda.

    The chatushpAda gAyatrI is also known as turIya gAyatrI. The normal gAyatrI mantra with 24 akSharas--syllables, that we chant is called tripAda--3-footed gAyatrI.

    More about the other forms in these links--sd:
    http://www.indiadivine.org/audarya/s...o-subject.html
    http://vedas-tantra-aghora.blogspot....nd-tantra.html

    • The agnipurANam throws light on the explanation of SAvitrI as:

    सर्वलोक प्रसवनात्सवितास तु कीर्त्यते ।
    यतस्तत् देवता देवी सावित्री द्युच्यते ततः ॥
    वेदप्रवसनाच् चापि सावित्री प्रोच्यते पुतैः ॥

    sarvaloka prasavanAtsavitAsa tu kIrtyate |
    yatastat devatA devI sAvitrI dyuchyate tataH ||
    vedapravasanAch chApi sAvitrI prochyate putaiH ||
    --agnipurANam

    "Since she creates the world, it is known as savitA and she, its devI--deity, is known as SAvitrI. Or it can be said that as she gives the birth necessary to chant the Vedas, she is called SAvitrI."

    (to continue...)
    रत्नाकरधौतपदां हिमालयकिरीटिनीम् ।
    ब्रह्मराजर्षिररत्नाढ्यां वन्दे भारतमातरम् ॥

    To her whose feet are washed by the ocean, who wears the Himalayas as her crown, and is adorned with the gems of rishis and kings, to Mother India, do I bow down in respect.

    --viShNu purANam

  3. #33
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    Re: Gayatri Mahatmya

    page 15
    gAyatrI mahiman: greatness of the gAyatrI

    01. ChAndogya upaniShad says:

    गायत्री वा इदँ सर्वं भूतं यदिदं किञ्च वाग्वै गायत्री वाग्वा
    इदँ सर्वं भूतं गायति च त्रायते च ॥३.१२.१॥

    या वै सा गायत्रीयं वाव सा येयं पृथिव्यस्याँ
    हीदँ सर्वं भूतं प्रतिष्ठतमेतामेव नातिशीयते ॥३.१२.२॥

    या वै सा पृथिवीयं वाव सा यदिदमस्मिन्पुरुषे
    शरीरमस्मिन्हीमे प्राणाः प्रतिष्ठिता एतदेव नातिशीयन्ते ॥३.१२.३॥

    यद्वै तत्पुरुषे शरीरमिदं वाव तद्यदिदमस्मिन्नन्तः
    पुरुषे हृदयमस्मिन्हीमे प्राणाः प्रतिष्ठिता एतदेव नातिशीयन्ते ॥३.१२.४॥

    सैषा चतुष्पदा षड्विधा गायत्री तदेतदृचाभ्यनूक्तम् ॥३.१२.५॥

    तावानस्य महिमा ततो ज्यायाँश्च पूरुषः ।
    पादोऽस्य सर्वा भूतानि त्रिपादस्यामृतं दिविइति ॥३.१२.६॥

    gAyatrI vA ida~M sarvaM bhUtaM yadidaM ki~jcha vAgvai gAyatrI vAgvA
    ida~M sarvaM bhUtaM gAyati cha trAyate cha ||3.12.1||

    yA vai sA gAyatrIyaM vAva sA yeyaM pRuthivyasyA~M
    hIda~M sarvaM bhUtaM pratiShThatametAmeva nAtishIyate ||3.12.2||

    yA vai sA pRuthivIyaM vAva sA yadidamasminpuruShe
    sharIramasminhIme prANAH pratiShThitA etadeva nAtishIyante ||3.12.3||

    yadvai tatpuruShe sharIramidaM vAva tadyadidamasminnantaH
    puruShe hRudayamasminhIme prANAH pratiShThitA etadeva nAtishIyante ||3.12.4||

    saiShA chatuShpadA ShaDvidhA gAyatrI tadetadRuchAbhyanUktam ||3.12.5||

    tAvAnasya mahimA tato jyAyA~Mshcha pUruShaH |
    pAdo&sya sarvA bhUtAni tripAdasyAmRutaM diviiti ||3.12.6||

    Tr: svAmi SvAhAnanda (RK Mission publication):
    3.12.1: gAyatrI indeed is all this, whatever being exists. Speech indeed is gAyatrI, for speech indeed sings and removes fear of all this that exists.

    3.12.2: That which is this gAyatrI, even that is this earth; for on this earth are all the beings established and they do not transcend it.

    3.12.3: That which is this earth (as gAyatrI), even that is this, i.e., this body in respect of this person; for these senses are indeed established in this body and they do not transcend it.

    3.12.4: That which is the body in respect of a person, even that is (identical with) the heart within the body; for these senses are indeed established in it and they do not transcend it.

    3.12.5: This well-known gAyatrI is four-footed and sixfold. This gAyatrI Brahman is thus expressed in the following Rk.

    [The gAyatrI is sixfold in the shape of speech, beings, earth, body, heart and prANa. Though speech and prANa are mentioned to show the relation of gAyatrI and the heart with all beings, it is taken as a form of the gAyatrI. The four feet of the gAyatrI are beings, earth, body and heart. This also is stated for the purpose of meditation.]

    3.12.6: Such is the greatness of this (Brahman called gAyatrI). The PuruSha--Person, is even greater than this. All this world is a quarter in Him, the other three quarters of His (constitute) immortality in heaven.

    [There is no division in Brahman; but to make it clear that compared to the phenomenal world Brahman is infinite, the parts are assumed and it is said that Brahman emanates only in only one part whereas in the other parts It is immortal or unchangeable.]

    *****

    02. Shankara bhAShya of sage VyAsa's brahma-sUtra says:

    Tr: svAmi SivAnanda:
    1.1.25: If it be said that Brahman is not denoted on account of the metre gAyatrI being denoted, we reply not so, because thus i.e. by means of the metre the application of the mind on Brahman is declared; because thus it is seen (in other passages also).

    Brahman is meditated upon as gAyatrI. By this explanation all become consistent. If gAyatrI meant metre then it would be impossible to say of it that "gAyatrI is everything whatsoever here exists" because certainly the metre is not everything. Therefore the Sutra says "tatha hi darshnam"-—so we see. By such an explanation only the above passage gives a consistent meaning.

    The direction of the mind is declared in the text 'gAyatrI is all this'. The passage instructs that by means of the metre gAyatrI the mind is to be directed on Brahman which is connected with that metre.

    *****

    03. manusmRti says:

    ओंकारपूर्विकास्तिस्रो महाव्याहृतयोऽव्ययाः ।
    त्रिपदा चैव सावित्री विज्ञेयं ब्रह्मणो मुखम् ॥२.८१॥

    यो अधीते अहन्यहन्येतां त्रीणि वर्षाण्यतन्द्रितः ।
    स ब्रह्म परमभ्येति वायुभूतः खमूर्तिमान् ॥२.८२॥

    oMkArapUrvikAstisro mahAvyaahRutayo&vyayAH |
    tripadA chaiva sAvitrI vij~jeyaM brahmaNo mukham ||2.81||

    yo adhIte ahanyahanyetAM trINi varShANyatandritaH |
    sa brahma paramabhyeti vaayubhUtaH khamUrtimAn ||2.82||

    2.81: Know that three imperishable mahAvyAhRutis, preceded by the syllable AUM, and (followed) by the three-footed SAvitrI are the portal of the Veda and the gate leading to (union with) Brahman.

    2.82: He who daily recites that (verse), untired, during three years, will enter (after death) the highest Brahman, move as free as air, and assume an ethereal form.
    • Manu (about the gAyatrI mahimA) says:

    manuSmRti also says:

    सहस्रकृत्वस्त्वभ्यस्य बहिरेतत्त्रिकं द्विजः ।
    महतोऽप्येनसो मासात्त्वचैवाहिर्विमुच्यते ॥

    sahasrakRutvastvabhyasya bahiretattrikaM dvijaH |
    mahato&pyenaso maasAttvachaivAhirvimuchyate ||2.79||

    "If a man does japam--litany of the gAyatrI mantra for a month at one thousand times per day (in places such as the river banks or jungles), with the praNava (AUM) and the vyAhRtutis (bhUrbhuvasvaH), he will be freed from his great sins, like a snake from its slough."

    *****

    04. shrI KRShNa says in his bhagavad gItA:

    बृहत्साम तथा साम्नां गायत्री छन्दसामहम् ।
    मासानां मार्गशीर्षोऽहमृतूनां कुसुमाकरः ॥१०.३५॥

    bRuhatsAma tathA sAmnAM gAyatrI ChandasAmaham |
    mAsAnAM mArgashIrSho&hamRutUnAM kusumAkaraH ||10.35||

    10.35: Further, I am BRhatsAma, the Great Chant, of the chants. I am gAyatrI of the metres. I am mArgashIrSha of the months. I am spring of the seasons.

    *****
    (to continue...)
    रत्नाकरधौतपदां हिमालयकिरीटिनीम् ।
    ब्रह्मराजर्षिररत्नाढ्यां वन्दे भारतमातरम् ॥

    To her whose feet are washed by the ocean, who wears the Himalayas as her crown, and is adorned with the gems of rishis and kings, to Mother India, do I bow down in respect.

    --viShNu purANam

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