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Thread: 108 Upanishads

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    Question 108 Upanishads

    Namaste All,

    The Muktika Upanishad lists the 108 Upanishads, the Veda to which they belong and the shanti mantras that precede the text of the Upanishads belonging to each Veda.

    The 108 Upanishads are further classified into several categories: Principal Vedic, General Vedanta, Sannyasa, Yoga, Shaiva, Vaishnava and Shakta. Where is this classification from?

    OM Shanti,
    A.



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    Re: 108 Upanishads

    Namaste all.
    By http://www.advaita.it/library/muktika.htm
    Muktika Upanishad
    Translated by Dr. A. G. Krishna Warrier
    Published by The Theosophical Publishing House, Chennai
    Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite, and this (universe) is infinite. The infinite proceeds from the infinite. (Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe), It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone.
    Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !

    I-i-1-6. In the beautiful city of Ayodhya, in the centre of a pavilion set with gems, together with Sita, Bharata, Lakshmana and Satrughna, was Rama seated, glorified day and night by sages like Sanaka, Vasistha and Suka as well as other devotees, unchanging witness of thousands of modifications of the intellect, delighted in contemplating his own form. At the end of this Samadhi, Hanuman asked with devotion, O Rama, you are the supreme being, of the nature of Sat, Chid and Ananda. I desire to know your nature truly for liberation. Please tell me how I can be released from bondage without strain.
    I-i-7-14. Rama: Well asked. I shall tell you. I am well established in Vedanta.
    Hanuman: What is Vedanta and where is it ?
    Rama: The Vedas in all their great extent are my breath, Vedanta is well grounded in them, like oil in sesamum.
    Hanuman: How many are the Vedas and how many branches do they have ? Of these what are the Upanishads ?
    Rama: Vedas are four, Rig-Veda etc., many branches and Upanishads exist in them. Rig-Veda has 21 branches and Yajus has 109. Sama has 1000 and Atharva has 50. Each branch has one Upanishad. Even by reading one verse of them with devotion, one gets the status of union with me, hard to get even by sages.
    I-i-15-17. Hanuman: Rama, sages speak differently: some say there is only one kind of liberation. Others say it can be got by worshipping your name and by the Taraka mantra at Kashi. Others speak of Sankhya-Yoga and Bhakti-Yoga, the enquiry into Vedanta-Vakyas etc.
    I-i-18-23. Rama: Liberation is of four kinds: Salokya etc. But the only real type is Kaivalya. Anybody even though leading a wicked life, attains Salokya, not other worlds, by worshipping my name. Dying in the sacred Brahmanala in Kashi, he will get the Taraka-mantra and also liberation, without rebirth. On dying anywhere (else) in Kashi, Maheshvara will utter the Taraka-mantra in his right ear. He gets Sarupya with me as his sins are washed away.
    The same is called Salokya and Sarupya. Persevering in good conduct, with mind fixed upon me, loving me as the Self of all, the twice-born gets nearer to me This is called the three forms of liberation. Salokya, Sarupya and Samipya.
    I-i-24-25. Meditating on my eternal form as prescribed by the Teacher, one will surely achieve identity with me like the insects changing into the bee. This alone is the liberation of identity (Sayujya) yielding the bliss of Brahman.
    All these four kinds of Mukti will be got by worshipping Me.
    I-i-26-29. But by what means is the Kaivalya kind of Moksha got ? The Mandukya is enough; if knowledge is not got from it, then study the Ten Upanishads. Getting knowledge very soon, you will reach my abode. If certainty is not got even then, study the 32 Upanishads and stop. If desiring Moksha without the body, read the 108 Upanishads. Hear their order.
    I-i-30-39.

    1. Isa
    2. Kena
    3. Katha
    4. Prasna
    5. Munda
    6. Mandukya
    7. Taittiri
    8. Aitareya
    9. Chandogya
    10. Brihadaranyaka
    11. Brahma
    12. Kaivalya
    13. Jabala
    14. Svetasva
    15. Hamsa
    16. Aruni
    17. Garbha
    18. Narayana
    19. Paramahamsa
    20. Amritabindu
    21. Amritanada
    22. Atahrvasirah
    23. Atharvasikha
    24. Maitrayini
    25. Kaushitakibrahmana
    26. Brihajjabala
    27. Nrisimhatapini
    28. Kalagnirudra
    29. Maitreya
    30. Subala
    31. Kshurika
    32. Mantrika
    33. Sarvasara
    34. Niralamba
    35. Sukarahasya
    36. Vajrasuchika
    37. Tejobindu
    38. Nadabindu
    39. Dhyanabindu
    40. Brahmavidya
    41. Yogatattva
    42. Atmabodha
    43. Naradaparivrajaka
    44. Trisikhi
    45. Sita
    46. Yogachudamani
    47. Nirvana
    48. Mandalabrahmana
    49. Dakshinamurti
    50. Sarabha
    51. Skanda
    52. Tripadvibhuti-Mahanarayana
    53. Advayataraka
    54. Ramarahasya
    55. Ramatapani
    56. Vasudeva
    57. Mudgala
    58. Sandilya
    59. Paingala
    60. Bhiksu
    61. Mahat
    62. Sariraka
    63. Yogasikha
    64. Turiyatita
    65. Sannyasa
    66. Paramahamsaparivrajaka
    67. Akshamalika
    68. Avyakta
    69. Ekakshara
    70. Annapurna
    71. Surya
    72. Akshi
    73. Adhyatma
    74. Kundika
    75. Savitri
    76. Atma
    77. Pasupata
    78. Parabrahma
    79. Avadhutaka
    80. Tripuratapini
    81. Devi
    82. Tripura
    83. Katharudra
    84. Bhavana
    85. Rudrahridaya
    86. Yoga-kundali
    87. Bhasma
    88. Rudraksha
    89. Ganapati
    90. Darsana
    91. Tarasara
    92. Mahavakya
    93. Panchabrahma
    94. Pranagnihotra
    95. Gopalatapini
    96. Krishna
    97. Yajnavalkya
    98. Varaha
    99. Satyayani
    100. Hayagriva
    101. Dattatreya
    102. Garuda
    103. Kalisamtarana
    104. Jabali
    105. Saubhagyalakshmi
    106. Sarasvatirahasya
    107. Bahvricha
    108. Muktika

    I-i-40-43. These destroy three kinds of Bhavana (regarding) body, senses and mind respectively as identified with Atman. The best of Brahmanas will become Jivanmuktas if they study upto the destruction of Prarabdha, these 108 Upanishads from a Guru along with the Shanti-pada. Then, in course of time they will get Vedeha-mukti, surely.
    I-i-44-52. These 108 are the essence of all Upanishads and can cut away all sins by merely hearing once. These cause release whether read with or without knowledge. One may give away a kingdom, wealth etc., to one who asks, but not these 108 to just anyone to an unbeliever (nastika), ungrateful, of bad conduct, one against devotion to me, deluded by wrong scripture or lacking devotion to the Guru.
    But they shall be taught to one devoted to service, devotee, of good conduct, birth and wisdom. He should be well tested. A Rik verse on this: the goddess of knowledge came to a Brahmana and said Protect me, I am your treasure, do not teach me to one who is jealous, dishonest and deceitful then I shall powerful, but give it to one who is learned, careful, wise and celibate, after examining him.

    I-ii-1. Then Maruti asked Sri Ramachandra thus: Please relate to me separately the Shanti-mantras of the different Vedas, Rig etc.
    Sri Rama then said: "My speech rests on my mind " [Vanme-Manasi.]. This is the Shanti-mantra of the following ten Upanishads forming part of the Rig-Veda:

    1. Aitareya
    2. Kaushitakibrahmana
    3. Nadabindu
    4. Atmabodha
    5. Nirvana
    6. Mudgala
    7. Akshamalika
    8. Tripura
    9. Saubhagyalakshmi
    10. Bahvricha

    I-ii-2. "That (which lies beyond) is full" [Purnamada .] and so on: This is the Shanti-mantra of the following Nineteen Upanishads, forming part of the Sukla-Yajur-Veda:

    1. Isavasya
    2. Brihadaranyaka
    3. Jabala
    4. Hamsa
    5. Paramahamsa
    6. Subala
    7. Mantrika
    8. Niralamba
    9. Trisikhibrahmana
    10. Mandalabrahmana
    11. Advayataraka
    12. Paingala
    13. Bhiksu
    14. Turiyatita
    15. Adhyatma
    16. Tarasara
    17. Yajnavalkya
    18. Satyayani
    19. Muktika

    I-ii-3. "May (the Brahman of the Upanishads) protect us both" [Sahanavavatu ] and so on: This is the Shanti-mantra of the following Thirty-Two Upanishads, forming part of the Krishna-Yajur-Veda:

    1. Kathavalli
    2. Taittiriyaka
    3. Brahma
    4. Kaivalya
    5. Svetasvatara
    5. Garbha
    6. Narayana
    7. Amritabindu
    8. Amritanada
    9. Kalagnirudra
    10. Kshurika
    11. Sarvasara
    12. Sukarahasya
    13. Tejobindu
    14. Dhyanabindu
    15. Brahmavidya
    16. Yogatattva
    17. Dakshinamurti
    18. Skanda
    19. Sariraka
    20. Yogasikha
    21. Ekakshara
    22. Akshi
    23. Avadhuta
    24. Katharudra
    25. Rudrahridaya
    26. Yoga-kundalini
    27. Panchabrahma
    28. Pranagnihotra
    29. Varaha
    30. Kalisamtarana
    31. Sarasvatirahasya

    I-ii-4. "May the unseen powers nourish" [Apyayantu .] and so on: This is the Shanti-mantra of the following Sixteen Upanishads forming part of the Sama-Veda:

    1. Kena
    2. Chandogya
    3. Aruni
    4. Maitrayani
    5. Maitreya
    6. Vajrasuchika
    7. Yogachudamani
    8. Vasudeva
    9. Mahat
    10. Sannyasa
    11. Avyakta
    12. Kundika
    13. Savitri
    14. Rudrakshajabala
    15. Darsana
    16. Jabali

    I-ii-5. "May we hear with our ears the auspicious truths of the Vedanta" [Bhadram-Karnebhih] and so on: This is the Shanti-mantra of the following Thirty-One Upanishads of the Atharva-Veda:

    1. Prasna
    2. Mundaka
    3. Mandukya
    4. Atahrvasiras
    5. Atharvasikha
    6. Brihajjabala
    7. Nrisimhatapini (Purvottara)
    8. Naradaparivrajaka
    9. Sita
    10. Sarabha
    11. Tripadvibhuti-Mahanarayana
    12. Ramarahasya
    13. Ramatapini (Purvottara)
    14. Sandilya
    15. Paramahamsaparivrajaka
    16. Annapurna
    17. Surya
    18. Atma
    19. Pasupatabrahmana
    20. Parabrahma
    21. Tripuratapini
    22. Devi
    23. Bhavana
    24. Bhasmajabala
    25. Ganapati
    26. Mahavakya
    27. Gopalatapini (Purvottara)
    28. Krishna
    29. Hayagriva
    30. Dattatreya
    31. Garuda

    I wonder about the validity of this Upanishad.
    According to the verse in bold one could be a wicked person and obtain moksha just because he/she died in Kashi!
    I copy something from another forum:
    Muktika Upanishad is likely to be a recent composition (of some overzealous advaitins!) as it has not been quoted by any pre Sayana commentrator. It gives a list of 108 upanishads, many of which have verses borrowed and tailored from Shankara's commentaries. None of these Upanishads are authentic because no early commentrator has quoted them. When faced with tremendous pressure from Vishsitadvaita and Dvaita, Advaitins manufactured a lot of Upanishads and tried to pass them as authentic, and added many Mayavada looking Upanishads, and also "edited" a number of Upanishads.
    To add more in line with moderators comments

    1. Why this rama - hanumat samvadham is absent in Ramayana?

    2. After hearing from Rama on Mukti directly, why Hanuman refused to go to Vaikunta, inspite of the fact, it has been told to him that Kaivalya is becoming one with Rama

    3. When did Rama accepted the fact that his name is the Taraka mantra

    4. Nature of Ramavatara is not that of an Aacharya like Lord Krishna neither revealed the true nature of Rama, even when devataas & Gnanis reminded him that he is Bhagavan, Rama simply answered "I see myself as son of shri Dasaratha", if so, when did he accepted that he is God and Kaivalya/mukti is becoming himself

    5. Regarding authoritativeness, when Muktika includes itself in the list of upanishads that has been promulgated by itself, why people who accept muktika cannon for authoritative upanishads refuse to accept similar classification done by Padma Purana by classifying puraanas into Saatvic, Rajas and Taamasi. Need more logic
    Regards,
    Orlando.

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    Re: 108 Upanishads

    That is right. No Acharya prior to 19th century has ever quoted Muktika or most of the upanishads it mentions. It is a recent composition and not sruti. Most of the upanishads it mentions are cut-and-paste-edit material from Shankaracharya's commentaries, and passed on as authentic scripture.
    Guard your Dharma, Burn the Myth, Promote the Truth, Crush the superstition.

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    Re: 108 Upanishads

    Quote Originally Posted by Sudarshan View Post
    That is right. No Acharya prior to 19th century has ever quoted Muktika or most of the upanishads it mentions. It is a recent composition and not sruti. Most of the upanishads it mentions are cut-and-paste-edit material from Shankaracharya's commentaries, and passed on as authentic scripture.
    Namaste Sudarshan,

    Be that as it may. My question remains where we get the classification of the Upanishads into the above-mentioned catagories, and who classified them as such? I ask this question after reading a thread on the Ganapati Upanishad which is classified as a Saiva Upanishad, but not accepted by all Saivas as such.

    OM Shanti,
    A.



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    Re: 108 Upanishads

    Quote Originally Posted by Agnideva View Post
    Namaste Sudarshan,

    Be that as it may. My question remains where we get the classification of the Upanishads into the above-mentioned catagories, and who classified them as such? I ask this question after reading a thread on the Ganapati Upanishad which is classified as a Saiva Upanishad, but not accepted by all Saivas as such.

    OM Shanti,
    A.
    The only way to verify that an Upanishad is authentic would be to check if it has been cited by a pre sAyana scholar of any tradition. Again, there are very clear evidences for manipulation of many texts, like mahAnArAyaNa and Bahvricha because versed cited by old commentrators are missing or new insertions are done.
    Guard your Dharma, Burn the Myth, Promote the Truth, Crush the superstition.

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    Re: 108 Upanishads

    108 Upanishads thus 108 beads on the mala?

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    Re: 108 Upanishads

    Quote Originally Posted by c.smith View Post
    108 Upanishads thus 108 beads on the mala?
    Namaste Clay,

    In truth there are over 210 Upanishads to be found. 108 are recognized in the Muktika Upanishad, which considers itself the last in the list. What youre truly asking, I think, is why the number 108, and whats so special/holy about it?

    The significance of the number 108 goes back to Vedic astronomy. Vedic astronomy has divided the ecliptic (path taken the sun, moon and planets from a geocentric perspective) into two superimposing zodiacs. The first zodiac (which is older) divides the ecliptic into 27 nakshatras (asterisms), and each nakshatra is further divided into 4 divisions (padas). Therefore, 27 x 4 = 108. Similarly, the second zodiac divides the ecliptic into 12 rashis (constellations, the 12 sun signs), and each rashi is further divided into 9 sections (amshas). Therefore, 12 x 9 = 108. The nakshatras and rashis are superimposed and bear a permanent relationship of 2.25 nakshatras = 1 rashi.

    So what? My understanding of this topic is far from perfect, but this is how Ive understood it: in Vedic astronomy, all the parts of the zodiac are seen as parts of the Purusha (the Supreme Being), etched within Prakriti (nature). Different nakshatras are said to be different parts of the Purusha. If we were to draw out this Nakshatra Purusha in a sphere, wed see an image of a Cosmic Being whose head and feet meet like a developing fetus inside an egg. Well, the egg is the Brahmanda (egg of Brahma, the universe), and the Being etched within it is the Purusha, the Supreme Lord, who has entered the manifest universe and pervades it wholly.

    Therefore, 108 is a number that represents the Lord Himself: the Supreme Purusha within Prakriti. This is why 108 came be regarded as holy, and youll notice the number 108 used over and over in Hinduism (108 upanishads, 108 pancharatra agamas, 108 names of God, 108 beads of the japa mala, etc). When we chant 108 times on our japa mala, its like our prayers are going around the manifest universe. Another way to think about it: the sun, moon and the planets by following their orbits on the ecliptic are continually paying homage to the Supreme Purusha by their parikrama (circumambulation), as we do in temple. So, when we chant 108 times on a japa mala, we too are symbolically performing that universal parikrama.

    I hope this made sense it is somewhat difficult to describe, but an easy-to-understand concept. There are many other interpretations as to why 108 is considered special, but this is by far my favorite, as it is very ancient and deeply connected to the Veda.

    Regards,
    A.



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    Re: 108 Upanishads

    Hari Om
    ~~~~~
    Quote Originally Posted by c.smith View Post
    108 Upanishads thus 108 beads on the mala?
    Namaste C.smith,

    We have discussed this but I cannot recall the post.. you are on the right track, yet there is one more click down. 108 = 9X12. This is 9 divisions of a sign (Rasi in Jyotish knowledge) X 12 houses (some call bhava).
    Each division is 1/9th or a navamsa( nav or 9 + amsa or division). This is equal to 3 degree's 20 minutes of an arc.
    Each division is owned by a graha ( ~ planet , but really that which binds... now what the graha binds is another post).

    So, here's some add'l info - next to the rasi chart, the navamsa is held in high regard. It is also called the Dharmamsa ( dharma + amsa or division), so the importance is so inferred by Dharma.
    Why so important? Within the navamsa , one looks for the Ishtadevata, based upon the Atma-karaka.
    When we aave mala beads, we are working with Dharma, it's influeunce, the Ishta , no? So this 108 is the connection to ones dharma.

    Now, what an approprite number for the Upanishads , Upa "near" + ni="down" + sad="sit" , some even allued to sadh " to go straight to the goal' or sad from sat, the truth - So you have sit down near/close. Now to who? the implication is to the teacher/guru and also near the Truth, represented by the guru. Back to the 108.
    Yet one can see the 'cream' of all the Upanishads in the primary ones , the first 13. Why so ? these are the ones that are commented on, in the Brahmasuturas. And the 'cream of the cream' can be found in the 700 verses of the Bhagavad-gita ( the song of the Lord).


    one can restrain the breath a 1000 times a day but your ignorance will not vanish without the wisdom of the Upanishads - Swami Sivananda

    pranams,
    Last edited by yajvan; 21 January 2007 at 09:45 AM.
    यतस्त्वं शिवसमोऽसि
    yatastvaṁ śivasamo'si
    because you are identical with śiva

    _

  9. #9

    Re: 108 Upanishads

    Quote Originally Posted by Sudarshan View Post
    The only way to verify that an Upanishad is authentic would be to check if it has been cited by a pre sAyana scholar of any tradition. Again, there are very clear evidences for manipulation of many texts, like mahAnArAyaNa and Bahvricha because versed cited by old commentrators are missing or new insertions are done.
    praNAms all,

    Since Upanishads are portions of vedas(no content change) Is it possible to verify any upanishad in general with vedas itself ? I mean to say search for the sloka found in upanishad in slokas of vedas ?

  10. #10

    Re: 108 Upanishads

    What is japa mala?
    Those who in penance and faith dwell in the forest, peaceful and wise,living a mendicant's life, free from passion depart through the door ofthe sun to the place of the immortal Person, the imperishable Self.Atharva Veda, Mundaka Upanishad 1.2.11. ve p. 415

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